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Brain and Nervous System Elaborate Class Notes

Brain and Nervous System Brain and Nervous System CHRISTOPHER SIAWELESKIMajor Lobes 1. Frontal Lobe 2. Parietal Lobe 3. Temporal Lobe 4. Occipital LobeFrontal Lobe Function(s)  The Frontal Lobe is located in the front side of the brain. It is right above our eyes, where our forehead is.  Carries out higher mental processing such as thinking, decision making, and planning.  The Frontal L:obe is also in charge of our selfRegulation of behaviors.Parietal Lobe Function(s)  Can be divided into two different functional regions: 1. Involves sensation and perception of everything in life 2. Involves with integrating sensory input, primarily with the visual system  Left parietal-temporal lesions can impact verbal memory and ability to recall details  Right parietal-temporal lesions can impact perception of personality. (Warrington & Weiskrantz, 1977).Temporal Lobe Function(s)  The Temporal Lobe is in charge of procession auditory information from the ears and eardrums.  The Limbic Lobe:  In charge of key memories, learning, and attention processing structure. (this is key to the Temporal Lobes primary functions)Occipital Lobe Function(s)  Its primary function is to deal with the processing and visual information perceived from the eyes.  Within the Occipital Lobe you can find the visual cortex which is in “charge of the learning to see” process.The Sub-Cortex 1. Medulla: Reflex Control, this part of the subcortex regulates functions like heart rate, breathing, and swallowing without having to physically think about it. 2. Cerebellum: Located at the base of the brain, regulates posture muscle tone/coordination. (tasks such as but not limited to walking, running or playing a sport would not be possible without the cerebellum)The Sub-Cortex 1. Thalamus: Foot-Ball Shaped acts as a stopping point for messages on its way to the cortex. Information such as hearing, taste, and vision relay on the thalamus. 2. Hypothalamus: Size of on average thumb nail. This part of the brain impacts behaviors such as sex, rage, hormone releases, and temperature control. 1. Usually the “final path” for many different behavior messages leaving the brain.The Sub-Cortex 1. Limbic System: Produces emptions such as; rage, fear, sexual response, and other emotional arousal. 2. Hippocampus: located at the center of the temporal lobes. It is in charge of forming lasting memories.Glial Cells  Microglial Cells- Acts as the brains “immune system”. It serves to protect and fight against injures and disease.  These cells have shown to be of big importance when it comes down to the development of the brain.  Myelin formers:  Schwann Cells (PNS: Peripheral Nervous System)  Another form of myelin sheaths that act as insulators for axons.  Oligodendrocytes (CNS: Central Nervous System)  Act as a “fatty substance” that wraps itself around axons to form layers of insulation. AKA: “White Matter”  Astrocytes:  Act and aid to form the “BBB” – Blood Brain Barrier.Nervous System  Central Nervous System (CNS):  Made up of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve.  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):  All other nerves not connected to the CNS are located in this nervous system.  Consists of two of the following:  Sensory Neurons: Runs from stimulus receptors in which notifies the CNS of actions  Motor Neurons: Runs from CNS > muscles and glands AKA “Effectors” that then take action.Nervous System  Autonomic System:  Consists of sensory neurons that run parallel to the CNS.  Body parts that are affected by the Autonomic system include:  Heart, Lungs, Viscera, Glands (Exocrine/Endocrine)  Somatic Nervous System:  Is a part of the Peripheral nervous system.  Responsible for movements we can control rather than cant. (EX: Dancing or playing video games)Synaptic TransmissionCells During “Action Potential”  Sodium channels open up and positive sodium cells rush into the cells.  Once the cells reach a certain “threshold” the action potential will start to fire.  This action either happens or it doesn’t.  Furthermore, this means that neurons will always fire at their full strengths.References:  Coon, Dennis.(1989) Introduction to Psychology, Exploration and Application. St. Paul: West Publishing Company, Retrieved from: htm  Warrington, E., & Weiskrantz, L. (1973 ). An analysis of short-term and longterm memory defects in man. The Physiological Basis of Memory. New York: Academic Press

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