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Exam (elaborations)


MATERNITY OB PN HESI SPECIALTY V2 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (LATEST-2020): (ANSWERS VERIFIED 100% CORRECT)1) A client is admitted to the labor and delivery unit with contractions that are 3-5 minutes apart, lasting 60-70 seconds. She reports that she is leaking fluid. A vaginal exam reveals that her cervix is 80 percent effaced and 4 cm dilated and a -1 station. The LPN/LVN knows that the client is in which phase and stage of labor? A) Latent phase, First Stage B) Active Phase of First Stage C) Latent phase of Second Stage D) Transition 2) To assess uterine contractions the LPN/LVN would A) Asses duration from the beginning of the contraction to the peak of the same contraction, frequency by measuring the time between the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next contraction. B) Assess frequency as the time between the end of one contraction and the beginning of the next contraction, duration as the length of time from the beginning to the end of contractions, and palpate the uterus for strength C) Assess duration from beginning to end of each contraction. Assess the strength of the contraction by the external fetal monitor reading. Measure frequency by measuring the beginning of one contraction to another. D) Assess duration from beginning to end of each contraction., frequency by measuring the time between the beginnings of contractions, and palpate the fundus of the uterus for strength. 3) Which basic type of pelvis includes the correct description and percentage of occurrence in women? A) Platypelloid: flattened, wide, shallow; 3% B) Anthropoid: resembling the ape; narrower; 10% C) Android: resembling the male; wider oval; 15% D) Gynecoid: classic female; heart shaped; 75% 4) What position would be least effective when gravity is desired to assist in fetal descent? A) Lithotomy B) Walking C) Kneeling D) Sitting 5) The factors that affect the process of labor and birth, known commonly as the five Ps, include all EXCEPT: A) Passageway. B) Powers. C) Passenger. D) Pressure. 6) While evaluating an external monitor tracing of a woman in active labor, the nurse notes that the fetal heart rate (FHR) for five sequential contractions begins to decelerate late in the contraction, with the nadir of the decelerations occurring after the peak of the contraction. The LPN/LVN first priority is to: A) Notify the care provider. B) Assist with amnioinfusion C) Change the woman's position D) Insert a scalp electrode. 7) During labor a fetus with an average heart rate of 175 beats/min over a 15-minute period would be considered to have: A) A normal baseline heart rate. B) Bradycardia. C) Hypoxia. D) Tachycardia. 8) As a perinatal LPN/LVN you realize that a fetal heart rate that is tachycardic, is bradycardic, or has late decelerations with loss of variability is nonreassuring and is associated with A) Cord compression B) Hypotension C) Hypoxemia/acidemia D) Maternal drug use. 9) The LPN/LVN providing care for the laboring woman should understand that amnioinfusion is used to treat: A) Fetal tachycardia. B) Fetal bradycardia. C) Variable decelerations D) Late decelerations. 10) The most common cause of decreased variability in the fetal heart rate (FHR) that lasts 30 minutes or less is: A) Fetal hypoxemia B) Fetal sleep cycles C) Altered cerebral blood flow. D) Umbilical cord compression. 11) While evaluating an external monitor tracing of a woman in active labor whose labor is being induced, the nurse notes that the fetal heart rate (FHR) begins to decelerate in a slow curve at the onset of several contractions and returns to baseline before each contraction ends. The LPN/LVN should: A) Insert an internal monitor B) Document the finding in the client's record. C) Discontinue the oxytocin infusion D) Change the woman's position 12) What three measures should the nurse implement to provide intrauterine resuscitation? Select the response that best indicates the priority of actions that should be taken. A) Reposition the mother, increase intravenous (IV) fluid, and provide oxygen via face mask. B) Perform a vaginal examination, reposition the mother, and provide oxygen via face mask. C) Administer oxygen to the mother, increase IV fluid, and notify the care provider. D) Call the provider, reposition the mother, and perform a vaginal examination 13) When using intermittent auscultation (IA) to assess uterine activity, LPN/LVN should be aware that: A) The resting tone between contractions is described as either placid or turbulent B) The examiner's hand should be placed over the fundus before, during, and after contractions. C) The frequency and duration of contractions is measured in seconds for consistency D) Contraction intensity is given a judgment number of 1 to 7 by the nurse and client together. 14) Perinatal LPN/LVN are legally responsible for: A) Applying the external fetal monitor and notifying the care provider. B) Correctly interpreting fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns, initiating appropriate nursing interventions, and documenting the outcomes. C) Greeting the client on arrival, assessing her, and starting an intravenous line. D) Making sure that the woman is comfortable. 15) The LPN/LVN providing care for the laboring woman should understand that late fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are caused by: A) Altered cerebral blood flow B) Spontaneous rupture of membranes C) Uteroplacental insufficiency D) Umbilical cord compression 16) The LPN/LVN providing care for the laboring woman should understand that variable fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are caused by: A) Umbilical cord compression. B) Altered fetal cerebral blood flow C) Fetal hypoxemia. D) Uteroplacental insufficiency 17) Which of the following is NOT a reassuring component of the fetal heart rate A) FHR of 114 B) Accelerations of the FHR C) Moderate Variability D) Absent FHR Variability 18) You are evaluating the fetal monitor tracing of your client, who is in active labor. Suddenly you see the fetal heart rate (FHR) drop from its baseline of 125 down to 80. You reposition the mother, provide oxygen, increase intravenous (IV) fluid, and perform a vaginal examination. The cervix has not changed. Five minutes have passed, and the fetal heart rate remains in the 80s. What additional nursing measures should you take? A) Call for help and Notify the care provider immediately B) Start pitocin C) Have her empty her bladder D) Insert a Foley catheter 19) What is an advantage of external electronic fetal monitoring? A) Once correctly applied by the nurse, the transducer need not be repositioned even when the woman changes positions. B) The tocotransducer can measure and record the frequency, regularity, intensity, and approximate duration of uterine contractions (UCs). C) The external EFM does not require rupture of membranes or introduction of scalp electrode or IUPC which may introduce risk of infection or fetal scarring. D) The external EFM can accurately record FHR all the time. 20) A number of methods to assist in the assessment of fetal well-being have been developed for use in conjunction with electronic fetal monitoring. These various technologies assist in supporting interventions for a nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern when necessary. The labor and delivery nurse should be aware that one of these modalities, fetal oxygen saturation monitoring, includes the use of: A) Fetal blood sampling B) Umbilical cord acid-base determination C) Fetal pulse oximetry. D) A fetal acoustic stimulator. 21) The LPN/LVN caring for the woman in labor should understand that maternal hypotension can result in: A) Uteroplacental insufficiency. B) Spontaneous rupture of membranes C) Fetal dysrhythmias. D) Early decelerations. 22) The LPN/LVN providing care for the laboring woman should understand that accelerations with fetal movement: A) Are caused by umbilical cord compression B) Are caused by uteroplacental insufficiency C) Warrant close observation D) Are reassuring. 23) A woman in active labor receives an analgesic, an opioid agonist. Which medication relieves severe, persistent, or recurrent pain; creates a sense of well-being; overcomes inhibitory factors; and may even relax the cervix but should be used cautiously in women with cardiac disease? A) Meperidine (Demerol) B) Promethazine (Phenergan) C) Butorphanol tartrate (Stadol) D) Nalbuphine (Nubain) 24) A laboring woman received meperidine (Demerol) intravenously 90 minutes before she gave birth. Which medication should be available to reduce the postnatal effects of Demerol on the neonate? A) Fentanyl (Sublimaze) B) Promethazine (Phenergan) C) Naloxone (Narcan) D) Nalbuphine (Nubain) 25) A woman in labor has just received an epidural block. The most important nursing intervention is to: A) Limit parenteral fluids. B) Monitor the fetus for possible tachycardia C) Monitor the maternal blood pressure for possible hypotension. D) Monitor the maternal pulse for possible bradycardia 26) A woman is experiencing back labor and complains of intense pain in her lower back. An effective relief measure would be to use: A) Counterpressure against the sacrum B) Pant-blow (breaths and puffs) breathing techniques C) Effleurage. D) Conscious relaxation or guided imagery. 27) A woman has requested an epidural for her pain. She is 5 cm dilated and 100% effaced. The baby is in a vertex position and is engaged. The LPN/LVN increases the woman's intravenous fluid for a pre-procedural bolus. She reviews her laboratory values and notes that the woman's hemoglobin is 12 g/dl, hematocrit is 38%, platelets are 67,000, and white blood cells (WBCs) are 12,000/mm3. Which factor would contraindicate an epidural for the woman? A) She is too far dilated B) She is anemic. C) She has thrombocytopenia D) She is septic 28) The role of the LPN/LVN with regard to informed consent is to: A) Inform the client about the procedure and have her sign the consent form. B) Act as a client advocate and help clarify the procedure and the options. C) Call the physician to see the client D) Witness the signing of the consent form. 29) With regard to systemic analgesics administered during labor, LPN/LVN should be aware that: A) Systemic analgesics cross the maternal blood-brain barrier as easily as they do the fetal blood-brain barrier. B) Effects on the fetus and newborn can include decreased alertness and delayed sucking. C) Intramuscular administration (IM) is preferred over intravenous (IV) administration. D) IV patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) results in increased use of an analgesic. 30) With regard to spinal and epidural (block) anesthesia, LPN/LVN should know that: A) This type of anesthesia is commonly used for cesarean births but is not suitable for vaginal births B) The incidence of after-birth headache is higher with spinal blocks than epidurals. C) Epidural blocks allow the woman to move freely D) Spinal and epidural blocks are never used together. 31) Maternal hypotension is a potential side effect of regional anesthesia and analgesia. What nursing interventions could you use to raise the client's blood pressure? Choose all that apply. A) Place the woman in a supine position. B) Place the woman in a lateral position. C) Increase intravenous (IV) fluids. D) Continuous Fetal Monitor E) Administer ephedrine per MD order 32) Nursing care measures are commonly offered to women in labor. Which nursing measure reflects application of the gate-control theory? A) Massaging the woman's back B) Changing the woman's position C) Giving the prescribed medication D) Encouraging the woman to rest between contractions 33) A woman in the active phase of the first stage of labor is using a shallow pattern of breathing, which is about twice the normal adult breathing rate. She starts to complain about feeling lightheaded and dizzy and states that her fingers are tingling. The LPN/LVN should: A) Notify the woman's physician. B) Tell the woman to "calm down" and slow the pace of her breathing. C) Administer oxygen via a mask or nasal cannula. D) Help her breathe into a paper bag 34) With regard to a pregnant woman's anxiety and pain experience, LPN/LVN should be aware that: A) Even mild anxiety must be treated. B) Severe anxiety increases tension, which increases pain, which in turn increases fear and anxiety, and so on. C) Anxiety may increase the perception of pain, but it does not affect the mechanism of labor. D) Women who have had a painful labor will have learned from the experience and have less anxiety the second time because of increased familiarity. 35) Maternity nurse often have to answer questions about the many, sometimes unusual ways people have tried to make the birthing experience more comfortable. For instance, LPN/LVN should be aware that: A) Music supplied by the support person has to be discouraged because it could disturb others or upset the hospital routine. B) Women in labor can benefit from sitting in a bathtub, but they must limit immersion to no longer than 15 minutes at a time. C) Effleurage is permissible, but counterpressure is almost always counterproductive. D) Electrodes attached to either side of the spine to provide mild- intensity electrical impulses facilitate the release of endorphins. 36) Your patient is a nulliparous woman, requesting pain relief. You examine her and she is 8 cm. What is the best option for pain relief at this point? A) Demerol B) Spinal C) Epidural D) Stadol 37) A primiparous woman is in the triage room being evaluated for labor. She has been having contractions for 2 days, has slept little and is feeling exhausted. On cervical exam she is 1.5 cm dilated, 50% effaced, -1 station - which is not changed from a day ago. Contractions are irregular, 30-40 secs long. Which of the following is the best option for her? A) Offer morphine IM, and a sedative to help her sleep. B) Admit her and give her an epidural. C) Tell her to go home, relax D) Give her a couple of seconal to help her sleep. 38) Which of the following is NOT a reason to come to labor and birth. A) The patient is 39 weeks with second baby. She has been having contractions for 2 hours. Contractions are getting longer and stronger and closer together. B) The patients says she has noticed greenish fluid leaking from her vagina. She is 41.5 weeks pregnant and not having contractions. C) The patient is 40 weeks and has contractions that are 8-10 minutes apart, 30 seconds long and been that way for 8 hours. D) The patient has not felt the baby move for 8 hours, despite drinking cold fluids, and nudging the baby with her hand. 39) What is an expected characteristic of amniotic fluid? A) Deep yellow color B) Pale, straw color with small white particles C) Acidic result on a Nitrazine test D) Absence of ferning 40) The uterine contractions of a woman early in the active phase of labor are assessed by an internal uterine pressure catheter (IUPC). The nurse notes that the intrauterine pressure at the peak of the contraction ranges from 65 to 70 mm Hg and the resting tone range is 6 to 10 mm Hg. The uterine contractions occur every 3 to 4 minutes and last an average of 55 to 60 seconds. On the basis of this information, the LPN should: A) Notify the woman's primary health care provider immediately B) Prepare to administer an oxytocic to stimulate uterine activity C) Document the findings because they reflect the expected contraction pattern for the active phase of labor. D) Prepare the woman for the onset of the second stage of labor. 41) A multiparous woman has been in labor for 8 hours. Her membranes have just ruptured. The nurse initial response would be to: A) Prepare the woman for imminent birth B) Notify the woman's primary health care provider. C) Document the characteristics of the fluid. D) Assess the fetal heart rate and pattern. 42) Through vaginal examination the nurse determines that a woman is 4 cm dilated, and the external fetal monitor shows uterine contractions every 3.5 to 4 minutes. The LPN/LVN would report this as: A) First stage, latent phase B) First stage, active phase C) First stage, transition phase D) Second stage, latent phase 43) The LPN/LVN expects to administer an oxytocic (e.g., Pitocin, Methergine) to a woman after expulsion of her placenta to: A) Relieve pain. B) Stimulate uterine contraction C) Prevent infection D) Facilitate rest and relaxation. 44) Vaginal examinations should be performed by the LPN/LVN under all of these circumstances EXCEPT: A) An admission to the hospital at the start of labor. B) When accelerations of the fetal heart rate (FHR) are noted. C) On maternal perception of perineal pressure or the urge to bear down. D) When membranes rupture. 45) With regard to a woman's intake and output during labor, LPN/LVN should be aware that: A) The tradition of restricting the laboring woman to clear liquids and ice chips is being challenged because regional anesthesia is used more often than general anesthesia and studies are not showing harm from drinking fluids in labor. B) Intravenous (IV) fluids usually are necessary to ensure that the laboring woman stays hydrated. C) Routine use of an enema empties the rectum and is very helpful for producing a clean, clear delivery. D) When a nulliparous woman experiences the urge to defecate, it often means birth will follow quickly 46) For women who have a history of sexual abuse, a number of traumatic memories may be triggered during labor. The woman may fight the labor process and react with pain or anger. Alternately she may become a passive player and emotionally absent herself from the process. The nurse is in a unique position of being able to assist the client to associate the sensations of labor with the process of childbirth and not the past abuse. The nurse can implement a number of care measures to help her client view the childbirth experience in a positive manner. Which intervention would be key for the LPN/LVN to use while providing care? A) Telling the client to relax and that it won't hurt much B) Limiting the number of procedures that invade her body C) Reassuring the client that as the nurse you know what is best D) Allowing unlimited care providers to be with the client 47) Concerning the third stage of labor, LPN/LVN should be aware that: A) The placenta eventually detaches itself from a flaccid uterus B) An active approach to managing this stage of labor reduces the risk of excessive bleeding C) It is important that the dark, roughened maternal surface of the placenta appear before the shiny fetal surface. 48) When planning care for a laboring woman whose membranes have ruptured, the LPN/LVN recognizes that the woman's risk for has increased. A) Intrauterine infection B) Hemorrhage C) Precipitous labor D) Supine hypotension 49) When managing the care of a woman in the second stage of labor, the LPN/LVN uses various measures to enhance the progress of fetal descent. These measures include: A) Encouraging the woman to try various upright positions, including squatting and standing. Giving positive feedback about her efforts. B) Telling the woman to start pushing as soon as her cervix is fully dilated. C) Stopping the epidural anesthetic so the woman can feel the urge to push and thereby push more effectively D) Coaching the woman to use sustained, 10- to 15-second, closed- glottis bearing-down efforts with each contraction. 50) When assessing a multiparous woman who has just given birth to an 8-pound boy, the nurse notes that the woman's fundus is firm and has become globular in shape. A gush of dark red blood comes from her vagina. The LPN/LVN concludes that: A) The placenta has separated. B) A cervical tear occurred during the birth C) The woman is beginning to hemorrhage. D) Clots have formed in the upper uterine segment. 51) LPN can help their clients by keeping them informed about the distinctive stages of labor. What description of the phases of the first stage of labor is accurate? A) Latent: Mild, regular contractions; no dilation; bloody show; duration of 2 to 4 hours B) Active: Moderate, regular contractions; 4- to 7-cm dilation; duration of 3 to 6 hours C) Lull: No contractions; dilation stable; duration of 20 to 60 minutes D) Transition: Very strong but irregular contractions; 8- to 10-cm dilation; duration of 3-4 hours 52) Match the degree of tear or episiotomy to its description A. Laceration that goes through the anal sphincter and the rectal wall B. a tear through part or all of the perineal muscles C. small nick in the perineum, not involving muscle D. Laceration through part or all of anal sphincter muscle 1st degree 2nd degree 3rd degree 4th degree 53) Which of the following is true about placenta previa? A) The bleeding from placenta previa usually occurs late in pregnancy at term. B) In evaluating the bleeding, a vaginal exam would be done to determine the cause of the bleeding. C) Symptoms of placenta previa are painful frequent contractions and bright red vaginal bleeding D) Once placenta previa is diagnosed by a 20 week ultrasound, it is very likely the placenta previa will resolve in the third trimester. 54) What assessment is least likely to be associated with a breech presentation? A) Fetal heart tones heard at or above the maternal umbilicus B) Meconium-stained amniotic fluid C) Postterm gestation D) Preterm labor and birth 55) During labor, the patient at 4 cm suddenly becomes dyspneic, cyanotic, and hypotensive. The nurse must prepare immediately for: (Select all that apply.) A) Immediate vaginal delivery B) Cesarean delivery C) CPR D) McRobert's maneuver

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