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Psychology Exam Review: Question and Answers

Psychology Exam Review: Question and Answers Marks: 1 The early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called _______________. Choose one answer. a. behavioral psychology b. psychoanalysis c. social psychology d. cognitive psychology correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of _________. Choose one answer. a. the brain b. consciousness c. behavior d. the mind ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT __________________. Choose one answer. a. parents of infant participants must be informed about the study b. investigators must debrief participants c. participants may withdraw at any time d. debriefing may be omitted when young children are involved correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 According to present research on psychologists, thirty-four percent are in the ________________ subfield of psychology. Choose one answer. a. Industrial/Organizational b. Clinical correct c. Developmental d. Counseling Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 The placebo effect means _______________________. Choose one answer. a. the expectations of the participants influence their behavior correct b. all conditions in an experiment are the same c. that there is no control group d. experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used? Choose one answer. a. case study b. survey correct c. experiment d. naturalistic observation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 Sallie noticed that when her alarm clock goes off in the morning her dog, Ruffles, is standing by her bed salivating. Every morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and feeds Ruffles who very much enjoys his canned dog food. It is likely that ________________. Choose one answer. a. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to sleep next to her bed b. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to enjoy canned dog food c. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock correct d. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate over canned dog food Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 Self-actualization was part of which of the following perspectives? Choose one answer. a. humanism correct b. cognitive perspective c. behaviorism d. functionalism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Pavlov's research demonstrated that ________________. Choose one answer. a. involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (food) b. an unrelated stimulus (food) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (barking) c. an unrelated stimulus (salivation) could occur in response to an involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) d. involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell) correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 What did Sigmund Freud consider as the key to understanding the nervous disorders he observed? Choose one answer. a. external consequences b. free will c. brain physiology d. unconscious mind correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 The steps or procedures an experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in a study is called the ________________. Choose one answer. a. hypothesis b. double-blind study c. theory d. operational definition correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a _____________. Choose one answer. a. independent variable correct b. dependent variable c. control condition d. coefficient of correlation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 Jane Goodall's research with chimpanzees and gorillas can best be described as __________. Choose one answer. a. participant observation correct b. a case study c. experimentation d. naturalistic observation ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. Choose one answer. a. Correlational research b. The double-blind study c. The single-blind study correct d. Field research ect Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. b. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. c. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. d. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. dependent variable b. random variable c. independent variable d. confounding variable correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. Choose one answer. a. the number of arrests a person has will go up or down based on the type of car an individual drives b. the number of arrests will increase the fewer drinks an individual consumes c. the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed correct d. the number of driving accidents a person has will contribute to the number of days spent in jail Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? Choose one answer. a. behaviorism b. humanism correct c. psychoanalysis d. cognitive perspective Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the use of a driving simulator b. the use of nicotine correct c. the driving skills of each driver d. the number of collisions Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. Choose one answer. a. finding a better way to support the hypothesis b. educational knowledge c. replication correct d. publication correct Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. Choose one answer. a. it is not that harmful b. there is informed consent c. it may be necessary for the experiment to work correct d. research is more important than people Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. school grades and IQ scores b. men's educational level and their income c. height and weight correct d. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test correct Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are ________________. Choose one answer. a. used by the majority of psychologists b. difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove correct c. based on facts d. supported by significant scientific research ect Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way? Choose one answer. a. case study b. naturalistic observation correct c. experiment d. correlational studies Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world. Choose one answer. a. rare correct b. common c. expected d. imperfect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of _____________. Choose one answer. a. description b. control c. prediction correct d. explanation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? Choose one answer. a. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. correct b. Participants may not withdraw once they start. c. Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. d. Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches 8 hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to 5 hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. she should sleep about 10 hours a night to ensure 100 percent quiz grades b. her low quiz scores are caused by sleep deprivation the night before a quiz c. there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades d. there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades correct ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. describing behavior b. controlling behavior c. explaining behavior d. predicting behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct? Choose one answer. a. Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary. correct b. There are rules that prevent the killing of animals. c. There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals. d. New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called _____. Choose one answer. a. confirmation bias correct b. volunteer bias c. the principle of falsifiability d. criterion validity Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 Freud stressed the importance of _________________. Choose one answer. a. adolescence b. early adulthood c. early childhood experiences correct d. middle adulthood Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Critical thinking means making judgments based on ________________. Choose one answer. a. emotion b. keeping a closed mind c. authority and expertise d. reason and logical evaluation correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient represents two things: ______________________ and ______________________. Choose one answer. a. a representative sample; strength b. strength; direction of the relationship correct c. the experimental group; control group d. direction of the relationship; expectant functionality ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a ___________________ . Choose one answer. a. evolutionary psychologist b. behavioral psychologist ect c. cognitive psychologist d. biopsychological psychologist ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 Observing behavior as it happens in real-life natural settings without imposing laboratory controls is known as the ______. Choose one answer. a. survey method b. experimental method c. naturalistic observation method correct d. psychometric approach Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 The question "When will it happen again?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. prediction correct b. control c. explanation d. description Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 The majority of psychologists work in ________________. Choose one answer. a. colleges and universities correct b. public school c. government d. private practice Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 Sam conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a restaurant. Many of the people he observed seemed to notice him. When Sam described his work to his teacher, she suggested he find out more about the _________________. Choose one answer. a. observer effect correct b. restaurant effect c. butterfly effect d. parent effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 ________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data. Choose one answer. a. Statistics b. The scientific method correct c. The double-blind method d. Checks and balances Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 Jane Goodall's research with chimpanzees and gorillas can best be described as __________. Choose one answer. a. a case study b. naturalistic observation correct c. experimentation d. participant observation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly? Choose one answer. a. to comply with legal requirements b. to allow researchers to replicate experiments correct c. to identify all the extraneous variables d. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________. Choose one answer. a. carefully feel the bumps on a person's head in order to determine his or her character traits b. listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness c. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements correct d. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation? Choose one answer. a. It involves observing behavior in its natural context. correct b. It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid. c. It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings. d. It is basically the same process as objective introspection. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. Choose one answer. a. educational knowledge b. finding a better way to support the hypothesis c. publication d. replication correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 All of the following are accurate statements regarding random assignment EXCEPT ___________. Choose one answer. a. it is a procedure in which each subject has the same possibility of being assigned to a given group b. it is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or a negative correlation condition correct c. it is a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups d. it is a procedure that allows individual characteristics to be roughly balanced between groups Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct? Choose one answer. a. Psychiatric social workers can prescribe medication. b. A psychologist has no medical training. correct c. A psychiatrist generally goes to graduate school, not medical school. d. An M.D. and a Ph.D. are pretty much the same thing. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 Rob was named to the first team all-American basketball team last year. However, he is academically ineligible to play this year due to failing several classes. As a result, he is ________________. Choose one answer. a. supporting the idea that negative stereotypes exist for collegiate student athletes that they are likely to perform poorly in academics compared to non-athletes correct b. supporting the idea that professors are biased in grading assignments of collegiate student athletes c. supporting the idea that athletes have higher GPAs than non-athletes d. supporting the idea that collegiate student athletes are not as smart as non-athletes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology? Choose one answer. a. Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality. b. Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific. ect c. Astrology is used by a lot of people. d. Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science. ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. confounding variable correct b. independent variable c. dependent variable d. random variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 Professor Holden gives a psychology exam on the origins of intelligence. She gives a short answer question based on the IQ scores of a parent-child pair. In order to answer the question correctly, her students need to remember that ________________. Choose one answer. a. given these variables, the correlation will be uncorrelated b. given these variables, the correlation will be positive c. given these variables, the correlation will be negative d. a parent's high IQ does not necessarily cause a child to have a high IQ correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Testing a hypothesis is the third step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. understanding correct b. changing c. describing d. predicting Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 "There is no life outside this solar system and nothing you can say will change that fact!" Which criterion of critical thinking does this person lack? Choose one answer. a. Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested. b. All evidence is not equal in quality. c. Critical thinking requires an open mind. d. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was developed by ______________. Choose one answer. a. William James b. Wilhelm Wundt correct c. Sigmund Freud d. William Tell Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities? Choose one answer. a. functionalist b. behavioralist correct c. psychodynamic d. Gestaltist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________. Choose one answer. a. the number of collisions correct b. the use of nicotine c. the use of a driving simulator d. the driving skills of each driver Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 The emerging field of brain imagery in cognitive neuroscience has developed methods, such as MRI, to examine _________________. Choose one answer. a. biopsies of the brain of a cadaver b. acute time of death in stroke patients c. images of the living brain correct d. select biopsied portions of a brain Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? Choose one answer. a. cognitive perspective b. humanism correct c. psychoanalysis d. behaviorism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 The work of Freud was built around __________________. Choose one answer. a. a theory of personality that emphasizes the awareness of one's own cognitive processes b. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior c. a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations d. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Forming a hypothesis is the second step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. describing b. understanding c. predicting ect d. changing ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seems to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon? Choose one answer. a. Gestalt correct b. behavioral c. humanistic d. psychodynamic Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior b. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind c. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct d. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 In the statement "Critical thinking requires reasoned judgments," the word reasoned means __________________. Choose one answer. a. logical and well thought out correct b. focusing on opinion c. giving it a lot of thought d. seeing one side of an argument very clearly Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of _____________. Choose one answer. a. prediction correct b. control c. explanation d. description Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Wesleyan University researchers Jamison and colleagues conducted a study to explore the negative stereotypes of collegiate athletes as "dumb jocks." In their study, the researchers found ________________. Choose one answer. a. negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics correct b. a correlation between collegiate athletes exposure to the negative stereotypes, the better they performed on an intelligence test c. collegiate student athletes performed better in the classroom if they were made aware of the impact of negative stereotypes d. professors often excuse absences by collegiate student athletes who miss class due to attending practices Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Unintended changes in participants' behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter are called _________________. Choose one answer. a. replications b. experimenter effects correct c. volunteer biases d. single-blind studies Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? Choose one answer. a. Participants may not withdraw once they start. b. Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. c. Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. d. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers' responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used? Choose one answer. a. experiment, case study, survey b. correlation, case study, experiment c. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment d. case study, survey, experiment correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 An operational definition is ___________________. Choose one answer. a. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships b. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested c. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation d. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? Choose one answer. a. structuralism; observable behavior correct b. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict c. Gestalt; whole d. natural selection; functionalism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the control group correct b. the experimental group c. the no-control group d. the driving simulator Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called _____. Choose one answer. a. confirmation bias correct b. the principle of falsifiability c. volunteer bias d. criterion validity Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 The question "What is happening?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. explanation ect b. description c. control d. prediction ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? Choose one answer. a. the science of behavior b. the science of behavior and mental processes correct c. the science of human behavior and mental processes d. the science of mental processes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down thought processes into their basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. What term might we use to describe psychologists with similar interests today? Choose one answer. a. humanistic b. cognitive correct c. behavioral d. Gestalt Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 Roger went to McDonald's to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of ________________. Choose one answer. a. participant observation b. room crowding c. eating McDonald's food d. observer effects correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements concerning critical thinking is ect? Choose one answer. a. There are few truths that need not be tested. b. Critical thinking requires an open mind. c. Some authorities should not be questioned. correct d. All evidence is not equal in quality. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 Professor Wenches approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches? Choose one answer. a. social-cognitive learning b. learning c. cognitive approach d. psychodynamic approach correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Specialties in Psychology for $300." The revealed answer is "These psychological professionals work with situations in which environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "What is a forensic psychologist?" b. "What is a psychiatric social worker?" correct c. "What is a neuropsychologist?" d. "What is a developmental psychologist?" Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 The CEO of a large automobile company says the cars the company makes are safe regardless of the fact that they lead the country in accidents due to faulty equipment. This discrepancy highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. b. Critical thinking requires an open mind. c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. correct d. All evidence is not equal in quality. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in ______________________. Choose one answer. a. experimental research b. case study research c. naturalistic observation correct d. laboratory observation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time? Choose one answer. a. "We cannot know others until we know ourselves." b. "Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes." c. "Focus on observable behavior." correct d. "Life is an effort to overcome inferiority." Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Perceiving the question is the first step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. describing correct b. explaining c. changing d. predicting Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 The majority of psychologists work in ________________. Choose one answer. a. public school b. private practice c. government d. colleges and universities correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 Adaris has always been drawn to the saying "Absence makes the heart grow fonder," and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. double-blind study b. operational definition c. hypothesis d. theory ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. explaining behavior b. predicting behavior c. controlling behavior d. describing behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? Choose one answer. a. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. correct b. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. c. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. d. The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 You are at a basketball game and the arena is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. The event reminds you of the topic of today's lecture in psychology class. What was the likely topic of the lecture? Choose one answer. a. psychoanalysis ect b. extraneous variables c. experiments d. bias ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ______. Choose one answer. a. naturalistic observation correct b. psychometric study c. survey research d. case study research Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________. Choose one answer. a. the number of collisions correct b. the driving skills of each driver c. the use of a driving simulator d. the use of nicotine Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 A __________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. Choose one answer. a. correlation correct b. independent variable c. dependent variable d. experimental effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. hypothesis b. operational definition correct c. theory d. double-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________. Choose one answer. a. school psychologist b. psychoanalyst c. humanistic psychologist d. psychiatrist correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied. Choose one answer. a. The single-blind study b. Correlational research c. The double-blind study correct d. Field research Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 A negative correlation means that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. there is no relationship between the two variables b. high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other correct c. low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other d. high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist's idea? Choose one answer. a. dependent variable b. extraneous variable c. experimental estimate d. hypothesis correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences. Choose one answer. a. introspection correct b. induction c. intervention d. insight inventory Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seems to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon? Choose one answer. a. Gestalt correct b. humanistic c. behavioral d. psychodynamic Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. average income and the incidence of dental disease b. adult shoe size and IQ scores correct c. the value of a car and the age of a car d. hours spent watching TV and grade-point average Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? Choose one answer. a. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict b. Gestalt; whole c. structuralism; observable behavior correct d. natural selection; functionalism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world. Choose one answer. a. common b. imperfect c. expected d. rare correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. b. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. c. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. d. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 The placebo effect means _______________________. Choose one answer. a. that there is no control group b. all conditions in an experiment are the same c. experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely d. the expectations of the participants influence their behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. Choose one answer. a. the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed correct b. the number of driving accidents a person has will contribute to the number of days spent in jail c. the number of arrests will increase the fewer drinks an individual consumes d. the number of arrests a person has will go up or down based on the type of car an individual drives Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an "A " because ________________. Choose one answer. a. research suggests that football stars often cheat to find academic success b. research suggests that athletes do not spend as much time studying than non-athletes c. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes ect d. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Which pair of scientists shared the most similar views of behavior? Choose one answer. a. B. F. Skinner and Max Wertheimer b. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson correct c. Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener d. William James and Wilhelm Wundt Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 Josh has been participating in a clinical study by a cognitive neuroscientist. It is likely that his brain is being studied to explore _________________. Choose one answer. a. thinking b. other cognitive processes c. all of the above correct d. memory Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology? Choose one answer. a. Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality. correct b. Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific. c. Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science. d. Astrology is used by a lot of people. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions? Choose one answer. a. so that effects can be measured correct b. to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand c. to identify all the extraneous variables d. to comply with legal requirements Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT ___________________. Choose one answer. a. data remain confidential b. participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research that would affect their willingness to participate, such as risks of unpleasant emotional experiences c. participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli correct d. deception must be justified Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion? Choose one answer. a. case study correct b. correlation c. experiment d. surveys Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 The word correlation is often used as a synonym for _____________. Choose one answer. a. variable b. validity c. relationship correct d. reliability Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches? Choose one answer. a. biopsychological correct b. learning c. cognitive d. sociocultural Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Sandi believes that people who eat at McDonald's are overweight, so she decides to do a naturalistic observation of people who eat at McDonald's. What should most concern us about Sandi's observations? Choose one answer. a. observer bias correct b. the bystander effect c. subject bias d. the observer effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Testing a hypothesis is the third step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. understanding correct b. predicting c. describing d. changing Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. Choose one answer. a. Field research b. The single-blind study correct c. Correlational research d. The double-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective. Choose one answer. a. sociocultural correct b. behavioral c. psychodynamic d. cognitive Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ______________. Choose one answer. a. apply the results to Costa Rica b. apply the results to the entire U.S. population c. apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American correct d. apply the result to scientists Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 ________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data. Choose one answer. a. Checks and balances b. Statistics c. The scientific method correct d. The double-blind method Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. Choose one answer. a. research is more important than people b. it is not that harmful c. it may be necessary for the experiment to work correct d. there is informed consent Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called ______________________. Choose one answer. a. a case study correct b. a naturalistic observation c. a representative sample d. a single-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers' responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used? Choose one answer. a. correlation, case study, experiment b. experiment, case study, survey c. case study, survey, experiment correct d. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct? Choose one answer. a. An M.D. and a Ph.D. are pretty much the same thing. b. Psychiatric social workers can prescribe medication. c. A psychiatrist generally goes to graduate school, not medical school. d. A psychologist has no medical training. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ______. Choose one answer. a. case study research b. psychometric study c. survey research d. naturalistic observation correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 Double-blind studies control for ___________________. Choose one answer. a. extrinsic motivation b. only the experimenter effect c. only the placebo effect ect d. both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 As a project for a psychology course, a student correlated weight and intelligence scores for 250 students. The computed correlation coefficient was .00. What did the scatter plot look like? Choose one answer. a. a straight line from the lower left to the upper right-hand corner b. a straight line from the upper left to the lower right-hand corner c. a random distribution of points correct d. a line with a positive slope. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 The question "Why is it happening?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. description b. prediction c. understanding correct d. control Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion? Choose one answer. a. experiment b. surveys ect c. correlation d. case study ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. predicting behavior correct b. describing behavior c. controlling behavior d. explaining behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with _____________ and _____________. Choose one answer. a. Gama images: electrolysis b. electrolysis: PET c. PET: MRI correct d. MRI: electrolysis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct b. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior c. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death d. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. b. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. c. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. d. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50." The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "Who are the humanists?" b. "Who is Sigmund Freud?" correct c. "Who is B. F. Skinner?" d. "Who are the behaviorists?" Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT ___________________. Choose one answer. a. data remain confidential b. participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli c. deception must be justified d. participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research that would affect their willingness to participate, such as risks of unpleasant emotional experiences ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Jane Goodall's research with chimpanzees and gorillas can best be described as __________. Choose one answer. a. experimentation b. naturalistic observation correct c. participant observation d. a case study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 On a television talk show an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a _________________. Choose one answer. a. clinical psychologist b. podiatrist c. counseling psychologist d. psychiatrist correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. operational definition correct b. theory c. hypothesis d. double-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world. Choose one answer. a. expected b. common c. imperfect d. rare correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 "There is no life outside this solar system and nothing you can say will change that fact!" Which criterion of critical thinking does this person lack? Choose one answer. a. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. b. Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested. c. All evidence is not equal in quality. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 "Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive." According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a ____________. Choose one answer. a. result b. conclusion c. fact d. hypothesis ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. Choose one answer. a. The double-blind study ect b. The single-blind study c. Field research d. Correlational research ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical flaw in this research would be ______________. Choose one answer. a. the fact that rubber boots are not equally available in all regions of the country b. the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives correct c. the fact that a psychological test, rather than a survey, should have been given d. the fact that making love has not been operationally defined Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 The majority of psychologists work in ________________. Choose one answer. a. private practice b. government c. public school d. colleges and universities correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of the following might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research? Choose one answer. a. an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items ect b. a survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women c. a survey of daydreams d. an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? Choose one answer. a. the science of behavior and mental processes correct b. the science of behavior c. the science of mental processes d. the science of human behavior and mental processes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. Choose one answer. a. publication b. educational knowledge ect c. finding a better way to support the hypothesis d. replication ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 A group of randomly selected subjects for study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called __________________. Choose one answer. a. the experimental group b. a representative sample correct c. volunteer bias d. the control group Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Freud stressed the importance of _________________. Choose one answer. a. middle adulthood b. early childhood experiences correct c. early adulthood d. adolescence Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches 8 hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to 5 hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades correct b. she should sleep about 10 hours a night to ensure 100 percent quiz grades c. there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades d. her low quiz scores are caused by sleep deprivation the night before a quiz Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? Choose one answer. a. cognitive perspective b. psychoanalysis c. behaviorism d. humanism correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. Choose one answer. a. it may be necessary for the experiment to work correct b. it is not that harmful c. there is informed consent d. research is more important than people Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 Self-actualization was part of which of the following perspectives? Choose one answer. a. humanism correct b. functionalism c. behaviorism d. cognitive perspective Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? Choose one answer. a. structuralism; observable behavior b. natural selection; functionalism c. Gestalt; whole ect d. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________. Choose one answer. a. listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness b. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior ect c. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements d. carefully feel the bumps on a person's head in order to determine his or her character traits ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. independent variable b. confounding variable correct c. dependent variable d. random variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of ______________. Choose one answer. a. prediction b. control c. description ect d. understanding ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the experimental group b. the no-control group c. the control group correct d. the driving simulator Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective. Choose one answer. a. sociocultural correct b. psychodynamic c. cognitive d. behavioral Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. height and weight b. school grades and IQ scores ect c. men's educational level and their income d. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 The work of Freud was built around __________________. Choose one answer. a. a theory of

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