NR 222 HEALTH AND WELLNESS CHAMBERLAIN UNIVERSITY LATEST 2020 GRADED A - $22.49   Add to cart

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NR 222 HEALTH AND WELLNESS CHAMBERLAIN UNIVERSITY LATEST 2020 GRADED A

Chapter 24: Older Adult Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A nurse is planning to write a grant for a health promotion project in the community. Which of considerations should the nurse make when determining the appropriate population for this project? a. The fastest growing population is children under the age of 12. b. The fastest growing population is young Black American adults. c. The fastest growing population is White middle-age adults. d. The fastest growing population is non-White older adults age 65 and older. 2. Which of the following statements made by a client best identifies someone who would benefit from health promotion interventions? a. “I have a new grandchild and want to be part of her life.” b. “My mother lived until she was 90, so a long life is in my genes.” c. “Some chronic illness is just a part of aging.” d. “I hope I’ll live a lot longer, but one never knows.” 3. Which of the following statements concerning nutrition and older adults is true? a. Older adults who live in their own homes are more likely to be malnourished than older adults living in a nursing home. b. Older adults lose their desire for high-fat, salty foods. c. Meals served in long-term care institutions are usually more well-balanced than foods eaten by older adults living at home. d. Many older adults are not aware of food assistance programs. 4. Which of the following statements concerning urinary incontinence is correct? a. Urge incontinence occurs when one has the urge to void but is unable. b. Stress incontinence is associated with emotional turmoil. c. Functional incontinence occurs is associated with environmental barriers. d. Incontinence with high post-void residual occurs when someone laughs or sneezes. 5. Which of the following nursing diagnoses is a priority related to the problem of urinary incontinence? a. Risk for social isolation b. Risk for impaired skin integrity c. Risk for inadequate fluid intake d. Risk for impaired coping 6. A 75-year-old man tells the nurse that he has difficulty staying asleep during the night. Which of the following responses should be made by the nurse? a. “Older adults need as much sleep as middle-age and younger adults. Let’s talk about your sleep patterns.” b. “I’ll ask the nurse practitioner to prescribe a sleeping pill for you.” c. “Taking naps during the day can help relieve excessive fatigue and will help you sleep better.” d. “Let’s talk about your sleep schedule and things that may prevent you from getting a restful night’s sleep.” 7. A nurse is conducting a community education program about cognition in older adults. Which of the following information should be included? a. Some form of mild dementia is a normal part of aging. b. All forms of dementia have the same symptoms, but progress at different rates. c. Assessment for dementia should be part of routine physical exams. d. Elders who score below 27 points on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) are not likely to have a cognition problem. 8. A nurse has recently accepted the position of unit nurse manager on a long-term care unit. Which of the following directives should the nurse give to the staff nurses? a. Encourage residents to participate in unit activities such as Scrabble™ and bingo. b. Demonstrate the caring aspect of nursing by dressing residents before breakfast. c. Fill in “missing words” during conversation with the residents to avoid embarrassment. d. Instruct the aides to get residents ready for breakfast as quickly as possible to make sure they are ready to eat. 9. A nurse is assisting with development of menu items at a long-term care facility. Which of the following menus would the nurse most likely recommend? a. One egg over easy, one slice of whole wheat toast with sugar-free jam, 4 oz orange juice b. 5-oz cheeseburger cooked medium well with lettuce and tomato, 10 baked potato chips, and 1 cup of decaf coffee with low-fat milk and artificial sweetener c. Chef salad with 2 oz each ham and turkey, lettuce, tomato, bean sprouts, onion, green pepper with low-fat dressing, and one small roll with low-fat spread d. Turkey bacon, lettuce, and tomato sandwich on whole wheat bread with two teaspoons of low-fat mayonnaise, 10 vegetable chips, and ice tea with artificial sweetener 10. Which of the following individuals would be at greatest risk of injury? a. 80-year-old who does not have air conditioning or a fan b. 70-year-old who has new dentures c. 68-year-old who has difficulty tasting salt in food d. 84-year-old who needs hearing aids 11. According to Erikson’s theory of development, which of the following older adults has successfully navigated the stage of ego integrity versus despair? a. 72-year-old man who is reluctant to retire because “work is everything to me” b. 78-year-old woman who has scheduled her third face lift c. 80-year-old man who has informed his children that he has made his funeral arrangements d. 67-year-old woman who is depressed because she has not been promoted at work for the past 10 years 12. A couple in their sixties has assumed responsibility for raising their two grandchildren ages 9 and 12 because the children’s parents died in a car accident. Which of the following are priority nursing interventions that the nurse can implement to help the grandparents cope with the responsibility of raising their grandchildren? a. Connecting them with the “Grandparents Raising Grandchildren” support group b. Encouraging them by reinforcing how they successfully raised their own children c. Volunteering to provide respite time for them as needed d. Assuring them that their stress level will lessen as they gain confidence 13. A nurse is conducting a staff development program about human sexuality for nurses who work in a long-term care facility. Which of the following statements would most likely be made by the nurse? a. “The desire for sexual intimacy declines rapidly with age.” b. “Older adults are very well-informed about sexuality.” c. “Older adults need to practice safe sex.” d. “The danger of contracting STDs during sexual intimacy is extremely low in older adults.” 14. The clinic nurse has seen the following four people today. Which of the following people is demonstrating a healthy coping pattern? a. Discusses very little except the loss of her husband 3 years ago b. Talks about the “good times” she and her husband had before his illness and death 1 year ago c. States that life is not worth living without her husband, who died 2 years ago d. Blames herself for her husband’s death because she did not “make him go” to the doctor 15. A nurse is assigned to provide care for a 96-year-old bedridden man who experiences severe pain from a chronic neurological disease. The man asks the nurse to please help him leave this world so that his suffering ends. Which of the following actions would be most appropriate for the nurse to take? a. Assist the doctor with the man’s request b. Refuse to care for the man c. Contact the pain care specialist d. Provide the man with names of doctors who participate in assisted suicide 16. A nurse is conducting a home visit for an older adult in the summer. Which of the following items should the nurse should locate in the home? a. Fan b. Porch chair c. Synthetic blend clothing d. Thermometer 17. The community health nurse has obtained a grant to offer a “Safe Driving” series for older adults. Which of the following information should the nurse stress during the series? a. Traffic fatalities involving older adults occur mainly at dusk. b. The cause of two-vehicle accidents is frequently an older driver striking another car. c. The average blood alcohol level in older adults involved in accidents is higher than the blood alcohol level of younger drivers involved in accidents. d. Relearning the art of defensive driving can help reduce the likelihood that an older driver will be involved in a motor vehicle accident. 18. As part of a community-wide flu vaccination program for older adults, the nurse is assisting at a vaccination clinic. Which of the following questions should the nurse ask before administering the vaccine? a. “Do you have any food allergies?” b. “Have you had the pneumococcal vaccine?” c. “Have you had the flu in the past 5 years?” d. “Do you have Medicare?” 19. A man tells a nurse that he is concerned about his risk of developing cancer. Which of the following behaviors would place the man at higher risk of developing cancer? a. Smoking a half of a pack of cigarettes a day b. Exercising three times a week c. Consuming green, leafy vegetables several times a week d. Visiting a chiropractor every week 20. Which of the following statements is the best definition of polypharmacy? a. The use of more than five medications prescribed by different physicians b. The use of multiple medications for the same or different health problems c. The use of multiple pharmacies and self-management of medications d. The use of multiple medications and supplements simultaneously 21. A person is preparing to return home following a 2-week hospital stay for congestive heart failure and pneumonia. Which of the following referrals would be most beneficial for the person? a. Transportation assistance b. Home-delivered meals c. Adult day care d. Home health nursing 22. The son of a 70-year-old man dying of cancer asks the nurse to tell him about the hospice program, so he can help his father decide if the program would be of benefit to him. Which of the following responses should be given by the nurse? a. “At hospice, your father will be heavily medicated, so he will not have pain.” b. “All of your father’s care will be provided by nurses at hospice.” c. “Hospice care can take place either at home or in a hospice facility.” d. “Visiting hours are about the same at hospice as they are here in the hospital.” 23. A community health nurse is working with a diverse population of older adults within the community. Based on the data from the National Health Interview Survey, which of the following assumptions should be made by the nurse when working with this diverse population? a. White Non-Hispanic older adults tend to require more assistance with their activities of daily living. b. Hispanic older adults tend to rate their health as poorer than other ethnic groups. c. Older adults who tend to rate their health as fair or poor are also financially poor. d. Older adults tend to require more assistance with activities of daily living than with meeting their routine needs. 24. A woman who is being discharged from the hospital is oriented to person, place, and time, and her memory is intact. She has occasional forgetfulness without a consistent pattern of memory loss. Which of the following housing options would be most appropriate for this woman? a. Independent living b. Retirement community c. Assisted living d. Nursing facility MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Which of the following interventions will have the greatest impact on reducing constipation in older adults? (select all that apply) a. Offering pureed foods that are easy to digest b. Encouraging fluids between meals c. Administering laxatives on a daily basis d. Assisting with ambulation 2. A nurse has accepted a position as director of health services in a retirement community. Which of the following statements about retirees is important for the nurse to consider as she plans programs? (select all that apply) a. Depressed and inactive. b. Left their job to spend more time with family. c. Left their job because of ill health. d. Happy and well-adjusted to retirement. 3. The nurse working in a retirement community for older adults is conducting a psychosocial assessment of all residents. Which of the following questions should the nurse ask during the assessment process? (select all that apply) a. “Have you thought about harming yourself?” b. “Are you still playing bridge every Thursday?” c. “How does your congestive heart failure affect your life?” d. “Has your financial situation changed since last year?” 4. Which of the following nursing interventions implies respect for a person’s spirituality? (select all that apply) a. Changing the position of the bed in a Muslim client’s room so that it faces east b. Contacting the chaplain to assess the client’s spiritual needs c. Saying a silent prayer with a client at the client’s request d. Praying out loud in the room of a dying client 5. A nurse is conducting a community health education program about osteoporosis with a group of older adults. Which of the following individuals in attendance is at greatest risk for developing osteoporosis? (select all that apply) a. 65-year-old Asian woman who smokes one pack of cigarettes per week b. 80-year-old White man who has three glasses of wine per day c. 74-year-old White woman on daily oral prednisone for emphysema d. 68-year-old Black man who has a sedentary lifestyle 6. An 80-year-old person is admitted to the hospital. During the health assessment process, which of the following conditions should the person be screened for by the nurse? (select all that apply) a. Polypharmacy b. Kidney failure c. Illegal drug use d. Alcoholism Chapter 23: Middle-Age Adult Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A 35-year-old person asks the nurse working in a dermatology clinic what causes skin to wrinkle. Which of the following statements would be most appropriate way for the nurse to reply? a. “There is really nothing you can do to prevent a lot of wrinkles. It is part of aging.” b. “As we age, we lose fat beneath the skin so wrinkles appear. There is nothing we can do to prevent it.” c. “Wrinkles appear for a number of reasons, including loss of fat beneath your skin and too much sun exposure.” d. “Wrinkles are caused by genetic factors.” 2. A 45-year-old client who has experienced a ten pound weight gain during the past year asks the nurse if she thinks iron supplements would help increase her energy. Which of the following would be the most appropriate action for the nurse to take? a. Ask the client to describe her daily activity and diet b. Leave a note requesting an iron supplement on the client’s chart for the doctor c. Provide the client with information related to aerobic exercise classes d. Ask the client if she is still menstruating 3. Which of the following is a normal physiological change that occurs during middle age? a. Increase in gastric emptying resulting in acid reflux b. Reduction in height caused by kyphosis c. Reduction of glomerular filtration by 50% d. Increase in the amount of estrogen produced in both genders 4. A nurse is conducting a community education program. Which of the following should be stressed as the leading cause of death in middle-age adults? a. Automobile accidents b. Malignant disease c. Homicide d. Suicide 5. A nurse formed a political action committee to advocate for health insurance for the uninsured. On which of the following populations would the nurse focus the group’s efforts? a. Asian Americans b. Blacks c. Hispanic Americans d. Working-poor White Americans 6. A nurse has been asked to develop a visit plan for a mobile mammogram van. Which of the following considerations would be made by the nurse when deciding which neighborhoods to visit? a. Hispanic women have the highest rate of breast cancer of all minority groups in the United States. b. The death rate from breast cancer is higher in Hispanic women than for women in other ethnic groups. c. The death rate from breast cancer in Hispanic women has risen in the past 10 years. d. Breast cancer in Hispanic women is usually diagnosed at an early stage. 7. A nurse has received a grant to provide a community-based education series for middle-age adults. Which of the following topics would allow the nurse to have the greatest impact on the health of members of this age group? a. Diet and exercise b. Seat belt use c. Depression screening d. Cancer prevention 8. The nurse collects the following assessment data from a woman: Hispanic ethnicity, BMI 29 kg/m2, age 41. Which of the following actions should be taken by the nurse? a. Encourage the client to continue her dietary and exercise patterns. b. Discuss her current dietary and exercise lifestyle habits. c. Counsel the client that she will face chronic health problems because of her weight. d. Encourage the client to adopt a low-calorie diet to help control her weight. 9. A nurse working in a rural location is interested in starting a weight management group for clients in the area. Which of the following interventions is most likely to ensure success? a. Using a pre-set list of topics for discussion b. Relying on printed material to relay information to the group c. Asking for a list of topics that interest the group d. Beginning each session with a 2-mile walk 10. A 52-year-old postmenopausal woman tells the nurse that she is afraid she will develop osteoporosis like her mother did. Which of the following statements is the most appropriate response by the nurse? a. “The American diet is much better now than when your mother was your age, so you have enough calcium in your diet to keep your bones strong.” b. “You have a strong genetic risk factor. There is not much we can do to stop the process.” c. “You need about 1000 mg of calcium a day to keep your bones strong. Let’s talk about your diet.” d. “Tell me about your diet, how much walking you do each day, and what medications you take.” 11. Which of the following statements about alcohol intake is correct? a. Women have a higher death rate related to alcoholism than men. b. A woman who drinks two glasses of wine per day with her evening meal is considered a moderate drinker. c. More women than men are considered problem drinkers. d. Women who experience fewer cognitive effects from drinking are less likely to drink heavily than do women who get a “buzz” from drinking. 12. The occupational health nurse is planning a health fair for employees. Which of the following information about dental health should be included? a. Drinking bottled water helps prevent tooth decay. b. Gingivitis results in bone destruction and can be eliminated by flossing daily. c. Preventive dental care requires a visit to the dentist every 4 months. d. In addition to screening for tooth decay, dentists screen for mouth cancer. 13. Which of the following people has exceeded the recommended guidelines for activity? a. A 36-year-old man who engages in bike riding and has a pulse rate of 137 during activity b. A 45-year-old woman who swims and has a pulse rate of 145 during activity c. A 50-year-old man who jogs and has a pulse rate of 120 during activity d. A 60-year-old woman who walks briskly and has a pulse rate of 125 during activity 14. A 63-year-old woman complains to the nurse that she has insomnia and sleeps only 6 hours a night. Which of the following responses should be made by the nurse? a. “Do you want a sleeping pill?” b. “Make sure that you do not nap during the day even if you are tired.” c. “Do you feel excessively tired during the day?” d. “The nurse practitioner may want to run some simple tests to find out why you are having trouble sleeping.” 15. A nurse conducted a 5-week education series about health maintenance. Which of the following statements by a participant indicates the analysis stage of cognition as defined by Bloom’s taxonomy? a. “If I eat too much food and do not exercise, I will gain weight.” b. “Fat is more calorie-dense than is protein. If I eat calorie-dense foods and do not do moderate exercise at least 5 days a week, I will gain weight.” c. “I will walk briskly at least a mile a day, 6 days a week, to maintain a healthy weight.” d. “I can eat more if I exercise more.” 16. A 62-year-old person states to the nurse, “I have trouble with my peripheral vision. Sometimes, I do not notice objects unless they are in front of me.” Which of the following disorders is the client likely experiencing? a. Presbyopia b. Glaucoma c. Cataracts d. Diabetic retinopathy 17. Which of the following middle-age adults has successfully transitioned to Erikson’s generativity-versus-stagnation stage of development? a. A 60-year-old woman who retired last year and volunteers at a homeless shelter 2 days a week b. A 63-year-old man who regrets his career choice and feels he cannot change careers c. A 45-year-old woman who resents having to care for her aging mother-in-law d. A 50-year-old man who has not saved for retirement but spends his discretionary income on vacations he takes by himself 18. A 52-year-old woman going through menopause tells the nurse working in the women’s health center that she is interested in slowing down the aging process and asks if she should take estrogen. Which of the following statements would be the best response by the nurse? a. “The latest research has shown that estrogen is safe to take and will help keep you healthy. I’ll tell the nurse practitioner that you are interested in estrogen therapy.” b. “Estrogen is safe to take for about 10 years. I’ll get you some information on estrogen therapy that you can take home and read.” c. “The safety of long-term estrogen therapy is inconclusive. It is primarily used short-term to relieve hot flashes.” d. “You can get the same effects from natural products in a health food store, and each product is backed up by research showing that it is effective.” 19. The occupational health nurse is asked to develop a plan to reduce work-related injuries. Which of the following recommendations would the nurse stress as the most effective way to reduce work-related injuries? a. Make the work environment smoke-free. b. Reduce environmental noise levels. c. Conduct regular walk-through assessments at the worksite. d. Increase paid personal days from one to three. 20. Which of the following effects of divorce on middle-age adults and children has been documented by research? a. Children adapt to divorce more rapidly than do adults. b. Emotional healing after a divorce takes approximately 24 months in adults. c. Children of divorced parents may have life-long difficulty forming relationships. d. Children of divorced parents undergo similar emotional turmoil as their parents. 21. A nurse is discussing sexuality with middle-age men and women. Which of the following information should be stressed by the nurse? a. Contraception usage should be decreased as a woman nears menopause. b. Difficulty with sexual performance among men happens near age 60. c. HIV infection after age 50 is rare. d. The majority of new HIV/AIDS cases occur among middle-age adults. 22. An occupational health nurse is planning injury-prevention educational sessions. Which of the following considerations should be made by the nurse? a. Education should be focused on workers with the least experience. b. All workers need continued education related to safety issues. c. OSHA rules apply to all companies with more than 25 employees. d. Middle-age workers have the lowest rate of injury of any age group. 23. Taking into account all of the agents that affect middle-age adults, the nurse plans a health education workshop focused on developing an individualized lifestyle change program for each participant. Which of the following actions should the nurse stress that individuals take first? a. Limiting unprotected exposure to sun b. Starting a smoking cessation program c. Exercising at least three times a week d. Scheduling a complete physical and dental exam 24. Which of the following medications is generally recommended to help preserve cardiovascular health in middle-age women? a. Aspirin b. Folic acid c. Estrogen d. Estrogen receptor modulator MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Which of the following individuals is at risk for developing osteoporosis? (select all that apply) a. A 55-year-old man who is on a low dose of oral prednisone every day because of rheumatoid arthritis b. A 40-year-old woman who works as a secretary c. A 60-year-old woman who walks three miles a day d. A 50-year-old man who works as a mason 2. Blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic White Americans to be diagnosed with cancer at a later stage and have a less optimal outcome after the diagnosis is made. Which of the following reasons help explain this difference? (select all that apply) a. Lack of access to, or utilization of, cancer screening b. Lack of health insurance c. Genetic variations d. Lack of resiliency against disease 3. A community health nurse is caring for a variety of different people in the community. Which of the following individuals would the nurse recognize as being at risk to experience increased stress related to family dynamics? (select all that apply) a. A 54-year-old couple whose young adult daughter and grandson move back into their home b. A 44-year-old single mother raising three adolescent children without child support c. A 60-year-old couple whose children have established successful careers in another state d. A 36-year-old couple whose child plays competitive tennis 4. The occupational health nurse working for a large corporation is a member of a task force to improve the work environment. Which of the following suggestions by the nurse would help to improve work conditions? (select all that apply) a. On-site walking paths b. On-site food vendors c. On-site counseling services d. On-site meetings of support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous Chapter 22: Young Adult Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A nurse is planning a community health education program for young adults. Which of the following considerations should be made by the nurse? a. The age span encompassing young adulthood is between 20 to 30 years of age. b. The number one cause of death for young adults is injury. c. The number of young adults in the United States is increasing. d. The maternal mortality rate is at its lowest point since 1980. 2. A nurse is completing a health counseling session with a 25-year-old woman. Which of the following statements should be made by the nurse during this session? a. “A yearly Pap test is recommended for detection of ovarian cancer.” b. “Research supports that breast self-exams reduce breast cancer mortality.” c. “The incidence of cervical cancer is very low in your age group.” d. “Daily physical activity and weight control is one way to stay healthy.” 3. A 26-year-old client has a total cholesterol of 206 mg/dL and an LDL of 110. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn by the nurse? a. The client has achieved the target levels for cholesterol in young adults. b. The client has a very low risk of developing heart disease. c. The client requires counseling about cardiac disease risk factors. d. The client has early-onset cardiac disease. 4. The public health nurse is conducting a screening of young adults for metabolic syndrome. When asked about the syndrome, which of the following responses should be made by the nurse? a. “Anyone who has low blood sugar, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure has this syndrome and is at risk for cardiac disease.” b. “This syndrome helps predict heart disease. Once it is diagnosed, the correct medication can be prescribed and heart disease avoided.” c. “This syndrome is a warning sign that the person could develop heart disease. When someone has metabolic syndrome, dietary and activity level changes are recommended.” d. “Anyone who has high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar has coronary artery disease. Once we make the diagnosis, we can begin to treat the disease.” 5. The university health services nurse is preparing a disease prevention program for college students. Which of the following information should the nurse include in the program? a. Living in the dorm increases one’s risk of developing meningococcal disease. b. The mortality rate from meningococcal disease is very low. c. There are no antiviral medications that can treat meningococcal outbreaks. d. A vaccine for meningococcal disease has not been developed. 6. A 30-year-old woman with a BMI of 36 is counseled by the nurse regarding interventions to assist with weight reduction. In which order would the nurse discuss the implementation of these interventions? 1. Gastric stapling 2. Medication to reduce appetite 3. Nutrition and exercise education 4. Assessment of lipid profile and blood pressure a. 4, 3, 2, 1 b. 4, 2, 3, 1 c. 3, 4, 2, 1 d. 3, 2, 1, 4 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 544 7. A nurse is discussing optimal activity for young adults. Which of the following information should be stressed? a. Forty-five minutes of moderate exercise per day are required to maximize health benefits. b. An increase in heart rate from 70 to 200 beats/min during exercise is optimal. c. Moderately brisk walking is an appropriate aerobic exercise. d. Sixty minutes of exercise three times a week is recommended. 8. The nurse working in the college health center is asked about a safe way to obtain a tan. Which of the following would be the best response by the nurse? a. “There is no safe way. Be sure to stay out of the sun as much as possible.” b. “Tanning beds are much safer than exposure to actual sunlight.” c. “Be sure to use sunblock agents and do not sunbathe between 10 AM and 2 PM.” d. “Once you apply sunblock, you are protected all day, so be sure to use it before any outdoor activity.” 9. A nurse is working in the community to prevent bicycle and motorcycle fatalities. Which of the following measures would be most effective for the nurse to promote? a. Use of helmets b. Increasing the minimum age for motorcycle licensure c. Construction of bike paths along busy roads d. Right-of-way laws for bicyclists 10. Which of the following reflects Piaget’s theory as applied to young adults? a. Voting for a candidate based on popularity b. Voting for a candidate based on media advertisements c. Voting for a candidate based on support of the candidate by peers d. Voting for a candidate based on analysis of views about various issues 11. Which of the following adults has transitioned to Erikson’s intimacy versus isolation and loneliness stage of development? a. A 21-year-old man who has a part-time job, spends most of his leisure time with his buddies, and has numerous short-term intimate relationships b. A 25-year-old woman who is very concerned with how she is perceived by her coworkers and friends c. A 30-year-old man who just graduated with a PhD and is looking for his first full-time job d. A 26-year-old woman who has a long-term relationship with a female companion 12. Which of the following young adults exemplifies Kohlberg’s postconventional level of moral reasoning? a. 28-year-old person who calls in sick so as to help a friend move to a new location b. 22-year-old man who uses marijuana on the weekends with friends c. 30-year-old woman who volunteers at a soup kitchen one day a month d. 35-year-old who works long hours so as to be considered for a promotion 13. Which of the following statements should be considered by a nurse working in occupational health who organizes a stress reduction workshop? a. Women generally experience less workplace stress than do men. b. One’s first job is exciting and leads to numerous opportunities, and therefore causes little stress. c. Young adults adapt easily to changing job demands such as telecommuting and long work hours. d. Work is of primary importance to young adults and helps form their self-image. 14. The parents of a young adult female have recently divorced. Which of the following is the young adult most likely to experience? a. Relief b. Depression c. Unemployment d. Inability to sustain own relationships 15. A 19-year-old college student is seen by the health services nurse. The young woman is distraught that she had unprotected sex 4 days ago and is afraid she may have become pregnant. Which of the following statements should be made by the nurse? a. “Let’s talk about your options because you must be 21 years of age to purchase emergency contraception.” b. “Don’t worry; you can purchase Plan B, an emergency contraception drug, without a prescription and it will terminate the pregnancy.” c. “I know you are upset, but we are in one of the 40 states that allow drugstores to carry Plan B, an emergency contraception drug. Let’s talk about how to use the medication.” d. “You have several options. Let’s discuss what would be the best thing for you to do next.” 16. The nurse working in the college health center is planning a program about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Which of the following information should the nurse include in the program? a. STDs are the third most common infection in young adults. b. STDs can be transmitted by any intimate contact, not just sexual intercourse. c. STDs usually occur as a single infection. d. STDs are the most common reason for a visit to the health center. 17. A 32-year-old woman visits the occupational health nurse because of malaise. Which of the following assessment data indicates that the client may be experiencing achievement-oriented stress? a. Sleeping 10 hours per day b. Unintentional loss of 10 pounds in the past 3 weeks c. Expressed fear of company layoffs d. Calling in sick once every 2 weeks for the past month 18. A nurse volunteered to work at a natural disaster site. Which of the following questions should the nurse ask to determine if the 26-year-old individual being screened is depressed or has suicide ideation? a. “Tell me about your pets.” b. “What do you do for work? How has your work been affected by this disaster?” c. “Have you thought of harming yourself?” d. “Have you seen your friends since the disaster?” 19. A nurse is planning health care for young adults. Which of the following factors about the interventions should be recognized by the nurse as having the greatest impact on whether they are effective? a. Culturally sensitive b. Match the person’s health care beliefs c. Cost effective d. Gender neutral 20. Which of the following circumstances accounts for one of the leading cause of death in young adults? a. Tobacco use b. Binge drinking and driving c. Illegal drug use d. HIV infection 21. A nurse is counseling a 23-year-old woman about oral, transdermal, injectable, vaginal ring, and implant contraceptive methods. Which of the following risks of using these methods should be stressed by the nurse? a. Toxic shock syndrome b. Nausea c. Blood clots d. Ectopic pregnancy 22. Which of the following interventions are appropriate relative to the nursing diagnosis: Health-Seeking Behaviors Related to Preconceptual Assessment and Preparation for Childbearing? a. Encouraging the consumption of a moderate-fat diet to prepare for pregnancy b. Referral to genetic counseling based on family history c. Counseling to avoid “hard” liquor d. Substituting a nutritional supplement for a meal so as to assure adequate vitamin intake MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. An occupational health nurse is conducting a blood pressure screening. Which of the following clients is at greatest risk of mortality from cardiac disease? (select all that apply) a. Black man with a blood pressure of 130/80 b. Mexican American man with a blood pressure of 110/60 c. White woman with a bold pressure of 120/80 d. Black woman with a blood pressure of 128/78 2. A public health nurse is interested in writing a grant to improve vaccination rates of young adults. His focus should be on trying to obtain funding to support which of the following vaccination initiatives? (select all that apply) a. Rubella prevention b. Lyme disease prevention c. Hepatitis B prevention d. Human papilloma virus (HPV) prevention 3. A nurse is conducting a community health education program for Hispanic women ages 18 to 35. Which of the following items should the nurse recommend that they increase in their diet on a daily basis? (select all that apply) a. Calcium b. Folic acid c. Iron d. Sodium 4. A community health nurse has received a grant to present a program about violence prevention. Which of the following individuals has a higher than average risk of homicide? (select all that apply) a. 33-year-old woman who served 5 years in prison b. 20-year-old homeless man c. 28-year-old man with a history of bipolar disorder d. 24-year-old woman who has a female partner 5. A nurse is working in a domestic violence shelter. Which of the following individuals would the nurse expect to encounter? (select all that apply) a. 34-year-old White woman who is vice president of a communications company b. 26-year-old Black woman who has a live-in boyfriend c. 29-year-old Hispanic man who has been married for 2 years d. 21-year-old unemployed White woman who has been with her boyfriend for 3 years 6. A nurse is planning community health programming for young adults. Based on the objectives for Healthy People 2020, which of the following topics would be priority areas for programming? (select all that apply) a. Prenatal care b. Physical activity c. HIV d. Suicide DIF: Cognitive Level: AFChapter 21: Adolescent Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. When do females usually begin puberty? a. 1 year before males b. 1 year after males c. 2 years before males d. 2 years after males 2. A teenager has been using acne medications for the last 14 days. Her acne is no better, and in fact, it is a little worse. What information should the nurse offer this girl? a. “Wash your face at least four times a day, making sure to scrub well.” b. “The medications can make acne appear worse at first; try to give it a few more weeks.” c. “Avoid all chocolate products.” d. “Because it is summertime, it would be good for your skin if you lie out in the sun for a few hours each day.” 3. The mother of a 13-year-old girl is concerned because her daughter has not started menstruating yet. The girl developed breast buds and started her height spurt at 12 years of age. Which of the following statements would be the most appropriate response from the nurse? a. “Usually, girls start menstruating when they develop breast buds; an endocrine evaluation might be warranted.” b. “Everyone is different; it will happen when it happens.” c. “Based on when the breast buds first appeared, she should starting menstruating around the age of 14.” d. “She will not start menstruating until her breasts are of adult size and contour.” 4. Which female disorder is characterized by only one X chromosome present instead of two? a. Gynecomastia b. Menstruation c. Turner syndrome d. Klinefelter syndrome 5. Which of the following disorders is characterized by males having an extra chromosome, typically being tall and initially thin, and not developing secondary sex characteristics? a. Gynecomastia b. Menstruation c. Turner syndrome d. Klinefelter syndrome 6. Parents recently discovered that their teenage daughter has been consuming alcohol on a regular basis. They ask the nurse for advice on how to best help their daughter. Which of the following recommendations should the nurse give to the parents? a. Talk to their daughter at length regarding the dangers associated with drinking. b. Tell their daughter she will not be allowed to use her cell phone if this continues. c. Enroll their daughter in a peer support group focused on teenage drinking. d. Provide their daughter with literature regarding the dangers of drinking. 7. Which of the following behaviors is most reflective of a teenager? a. Riding an ATV without a helmet b. Not skiing for fear of falling and getting hurt c. Obeying a new parental rule without a challenge d. Walking away from a group of friends who are smoking cigarettes 8. What percentage of adolescent females suffer from an eating disorder in the United States? a. 5% b. 10% c. 15% d. 20% ANS: B Ten percent of adolescent females suffer from an eating disorder in the United States. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: pp. 519-520 9. During a physical exam, a teenager asks the nurse if she can have a stronger medication for her constipation because the laxatives she has been taking are not helping. During the physical exam, the nurse observes mild to moderate erosion of the tooth enamel. Which of the following disorders is the client most likely experiencing? a. Bulimia nervosa b. Binge eating disorder c. Idiopathic constipation d. Irritable bowel syndrome 10. A teenager has a family history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. He asks the nurse what he can do to try to prevent developing it himself. Which of the following instructions should the nurse give this client? a. Tell him to avoid any and all sweets. b. Tell him to be active and eat a balanced diet. c. Tell him he should talk to his physician about genetic testing. d. Tell him that very little can be done to avoid developing this disorder. 11. Which of the following teenage behaviors is cause for concern? a. Has difficulty waking up in the morning and naps during the day b. Goes to bed late and naps during the day c. Takes frequent naps and states it is because he is bored d. Participates in after school activities and has difficulty waking up 12. A mother is concerned because her daughter has been taking a nap every day after school. Which of the following statements would be the best response by the nurse? a. “Don’t worry; all teenagers do that.” b. “Tell me about your daughter’s schedule.” c. “Let’s bring her in for some blood work.” d. “Have you addressed the topic of drugs with you daughter?’ 13. Which of the following teenagers is at risk for not meeting his developmental task? a. Arrested for petty theft b. Decided he wants to major in accounting c. Has recently broke up with his girlfriend d. Is a member of the varsity basketball team 14. Which of the following actions should parents take to help their teenager meet his developmental task? a. Set strict rules to prevent the teenager from getting into any trouble. b. Maintain an ongoing dialogue about important issues and upcoming challenges. c. Maintain a friendship with the teenager, so he views parents as peers. d. Be very lenient with the teenager so that he can figure out who he is as a person. 15. Which of the following teenagers is at increased risk for acquiring a sexually transmitted disease and should be provided with anticipatory guidance? a. Asks the nurse for information about condoms b. Feels her friends and family do not care about her c. Has multiple friends and feels good about herself d. Talks to her boyfriend on the phone for hours 16. A mother is concerned because her 13-year-old daughter comes home happy one day and sad the next. The girl also argues with her younger sister more than she did in the past, and does not like participating in family activities anymore. Which of the following is the best initial response from the nurse? a. “The changes during adolescence can be stressful as they struggle to come to terms with who they are. What other types of behaviors has she been displaying?” b. “Changes in affect can be a warning sign for suicide. Has she had any increase in risk-taking behaviors or physical violence?” c. “Is there any history of psychological disorders in your family?” d. “Withdrawal can be a sign of substance abuse. Has she given you any indication she might be using illicit drugs?” 17. Which of the following is the third leading cause of death in adolescents between 10 and 24 years of age? a. Accidents b. Suicide c. Cancer d. Sport injuries 18. After offering a teenager the HPV vaccine, the teenager responds by saying, “I can’t have the vaccine because I have already been sexually active.” Which of the following statements is the best response by the nurse? a. “You can still benefit from the vaccine, but there is a chance it will not be as effective.” b. “The best way to protect yourself now is to make sure all your future sexual partners have received the vaccine.” c. “You are correct, the vaccine is only indicated for females who have never been sexually active.” d. “It depends on the number of partners you have had. If you have had less than five partners, you are still eligible for the vaccine.” 19. A nurse is initiating a discussion about alcohol consumption during a physical exam with a teenager. Which of the following questions would be most appropriate for the nurse to ask? a. “So, what do you and your friends do for fun and excitement?” b. “Do you have access to alcohol?” c. “Do any of your friends drink?” d. “Do you want to talk about alcohol or drinking?” 20. The school nurse is working on a campaign in the school to prevent adolescent pregnancies. Which of the following interventions should the nurse implement? a. Talk to teenagers about sex, including abstinence, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases. b. Tell the teenagers they should abstain from sex until they are old enough to cope with the potential consequences such as an unwanted pregnancy. c. Encourage parents of all teenage girls to make sure their daughters start oral contraceptives early. d. Offer all teenagers free condoms when they come in for physical exams. 21. A teenager asks the school nurse for advice before getting a tattoo. Which of the following responses would be most appropriate for the nurse? a. “You should not get a tattoo.” b. “It is okay to get a tattoo if you go to a licensed artist.” c. “Tattoos are popular; however, they can lead to infection and/or bleeding.” d. “A body piercing would be safer and less permanent.” 22. A teenager is expecting her menstrual period on May 14. On which of the following dates would the nurse recommend that she perform a self-breast exam? a. May 11 b. May 14 c. May 17 d. May 23 23. Which of the following teenagers is exhibiting a behavior that cause for concern and requires further evaluation? a. Is always very happy b. Is agitated and has trouble sleeping c. Has a lot of homework and stays up late to finish it d. Values his friend’s opinion more than his parent’s opinion 24. Which stage of male genital development is characterized by initial enlargement of the penis, mainly in length along with further growth of the testes and scrotum? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 25. Which stage of female breast development is characterized by enlargement of the areolar diameter along with a small area of elevation around the papillae? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 26. A 14-year-old female is in for a physical exam. Which finding requires further investigation? a. A height spurt since her last visit b. Facial acne c. The lack of breast buds d. Noticeable sweating and body odor with activity MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Which of the following are symptoms or warning signs of anorexia nervosa? (select all that apply) a. Lack of menstruation in females b. Preoccupation with food c. Eating only small amounts of certain foods d. Dramatic weight fluctuations 2. A nurse is discussing being a safe driver as part of a driver’s education course. Which of the following recommendations would the nurse include in this presentation? (select all that apply) a. Carpooling with friends b. Avoiding talking on cell phones c. Driving during daytime hours d. Wearing safety belt Chapter 04: The Therapeutic Relationship Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following statements about values is true? a. It is impossible for someone to understand his or her values. b. Values evolve over time; they are not static. c. Values assimilated in childhood are those held for a lifetime. d. Values clarification tells a person how to act. 2. A nurse is providing education about improving self-awareness to a small group of women who have been victims of domestic violence. Which of the following should the nurse recommend the clients do first to improve their self-awareness? a. Use self-disclosure to share aspects of self. b. Listen to and learn from others. c. Listen to oneself and pay attention to emotions, thoughts, and reactions. d. Use others to bounce back your own thoughts and recollections. 3. The nurse shares with her client the news that she, the nurse, is going to be married soon and tells the client about her wedding plans. Which of the following best describes the nurse’s actions? a. The nurse is sharing inappropriate personal information with her client. b. The nurse is exhibiting a communication technique called self-disclosure. c. The nurse is attempting to show empathy with her client. d. The nurse is violating client confidentiality rights of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). 4. A nurse has started admitting a new person on home care and is beginning to establish a relationship. Which of the following would be the most important thing for the nurse to do? a. Complete the paperwork in a timely fashion b. Establish open communication c. Conduct a complete physical health assessment d. Provide feedback to the person’s questions 5. Which of the following best describes person-centered communication? a. The nurse says to the person seeking care, “Why do you continue to drink when you know it is not good for you?” b. The nurse responds to person seeking care’s request for pain medicine by saying, “It is not time for your pain medicine. You had it hours ago.” c. The client says to the nurse, “I think my husband is cheating on me.” The nurse responds by saying, “You think your husband is cheating on you?” d. The client says to the nurse, “I can’t believe I have cancer.” The nurse responds by saying, “One of my closest friends had cancer and had to have chemotherapy.” 6. A nurse is counseling someone who has recently been diagnosed with diabetes. The nurse says, “Tell me more about how this diagnosis has affected your daily activities.” Which of the following best describes the type of communication the nurse is using? a. Verbal communication b. Nonverbal communication c. Metacommunication d. Functional communication 7. Which of the following statements about nonverbal communication is true? a. Nonverbal behavior is not usually contextual. b. Nonverbal behavior is culturally and situationally bound. c. Nonverbal communication is the most important type of communication. d. Nonverbal communication is easy to interpret. 8. Which of the following scenarios best describes a nurse using metacommunication? a. Using both touch and silence when counseling an individual b. Practicing reflection when interaction with an individual c. Discussing with an individual how to solve a problem d. Understanding that an individual needs a break before proceeding 9. Which of the following statements can be identified as a method for clarifying a message? a. “I get very upset when you talk to me in that tone.” b. “You make me very angry when you drink alcohol.” c. “I can make you happy. I know I can.” d. “What I want from you is to be left alone!” 10. A nurse and a man are involved in a conversation. When the person folds his arms across his chest, the nurse almost simultaneously folds her arms across her chest. This behavior is recognized as: a. empathy. b. reciprocity. c. flexibility. d. spacing. 11. A nurse and her client are engaged in meaningful conversation when suddenly there is silence between the two. To facilitate effective client-centered communication, the nurse should: a. ask the person what he is thinking, so they can understand each other. b. restate what the person said before silence ensued, to get clarification. c. change the subject to one that is more pleasant for the person to discuss. d. wait quietly to give the person time to reflect where he wants to lead the conversation. 12. A person has just been admitted to the hospital. In talking with the person, the nurse is able to elicit from her that the reason for her hospitalization is that her husband beat her up. Which characteristic of the therapeutic relationship is being demonstrated? a. Empathy b. Trust c. Rapport d. Purposeful communication 13. An individual reveals to the nurse that he is having an affair with his wife’s best friend. Which of the following statements will enhance effective therapeutic communication between him and the nurse? a. “You know that what you are doing is wrong.” b. “Why would you want do something like that?” c. “How could you do that to your wife and children?” d. “This affair seems to be troubling you.” 14. A nurse is working with a person to increase his daily exercise and activity. Which of the following statements by the nurse best demonstrates the use of reflection? a. “I have also struggled with finding time to exercise on a regular basis.” b. “Regular exercise plays an important role in preventing many health problems.” c. “You said that you have difficulty making time in your day for exercise.” d. “It may be helpful if we developed a goal related to daily exercise. “ 15. A woman tells the nurse that she is very nervous about their meeting today. Which of the following relationship stages are the nurse and woman most likely experiencing? a. Orientation phase b. Working phase c. Therapeutic phase d. Termination phase 16. Which of the following is the first step in the valuing process? a. Acting out the choice b. Selecting from alternatives c. Being happy with personal beliefs and actions d. Choosing freely 17. The nurse makes sure that the distance between himself and the client is at least 6 feet before he begins to ask questions related to the client’s health history. Which of the following statements is true? a. This is the ideal space for intimate communication. b. This distance is too far for the nurse to build a therapeutic relationship while obtaining the information. c. This is the recommended distance between client and nurse for effective therapeutic communication. d. The nurse should position himself an additional foot away to facilitate the conversation. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. A nurse is working on values clarification with a person who has chosen to smoke during her pregnancy. Which of the following statements would be the most appropriate for the nurse to assist in this process? (select all that apply) a. “Why do you smoke cigarettes? b. “What do you value most in life?” c. “Who has influenced your decision to smoke?” d. “Is your decision to smoke consistent with your values?” 2. A nurse is in the process of establishing a therapeutic relationship with a person. Which of the following techniques should be used by the nurse? (select all that apply) a. Learn about the person’s interests. b. Sit close to the person. c. Show interest in the person’s concerns. d. Define the parameters of the relationship with the person. 3. Which of the following is an essential question that nurses should encourage individuals to ask at every health visit? (select all that apply) a. “What is my main problem?” b. “What health information do I not understand?” c. “What do I need to do?” d. “What is the plan for the next visit?” Chapter 15: Overview of Growth and Development Framework Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The nurse is explaining the concept of growth to a parent. Which of the following statements should be made by the nurse? a. “Growth means adding height and weight to your body.” b. “We continue to grow in various ways throughout life.” c. “How much we grow is based on gender.” d. “Growth stops when we are young adults.” 2. Which of the following statements is correct related to the concept of growth a. Growth occurs mainly during early childhood. b. Older adults do not experience growth-related changes.. c. Growth refers only to the increase in the size of specific organs and systems. d. Growth occurs throughout the life cycle. 3. The nurse at a well-baby clinic is assessing a 12-month-old child. At birth, the child weighed 7 lb. 3 oz. During this visit, the child weighs 21 lb. 10 oz. Which of the following conclusions would the nurse make about the child’s weight? a. The infant is gaining weight faster than anticipated. b. The infant is malnourished. c. The infant is at the expected weight for his or her age. d. The infant is having a growth spurt. 4. The school nurse has been asked to order growth charts. Which of the following growth charts should be selected to assessing children in first through fifth grades? a. Generic body mass index chart b. Height and weight chart c. Revised CDC growth chart d. WHO international growth chart 5. A school nurse is obtaining the height and weight of a 9-year-old child. Which of the following is the best method to assess the child’s growth? a. Use serial measurements over time. b. Use this measurement. c. Use this measurement and compare it with the child’s peers. d. Use the WHO growth chart to assess this child’s measurements. 6. A mother comes to the pediatric clinic and says to the nurse, “I am worried about my 11-month-old baby because he is not crawling yet and his brother crawled when he was 11 months old. Is something wrong?” Which of the following statements should the nurse make? a. “It is highly unusual for siblings not to reach developmental milestones at the same time. I’ll ask the doctor to assess him.” b. “All babies reach developmental milestones at different rates.” c. “This may be something to worry about. I’ll have the doctor examine him.” d. “Don’t worry; he’ll crawl soon enough.” 7. Which of the following statements describes Erikson’s theory of development? a. A healthy personality is defined by the lack of pathology. b. Stages of development advance based on psychosocial factors. c. The main premise of the theory is that individuals are interdependent beings and rely on each other in order to develop successfully. d. An individual must successfully accomplish the developmental stage before proceeding to the next stage. 8. According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, which of the following statements is correct? a. Cognitive function continues to become refined throughout life. b. A child’s greatest task is to make sense of the world around him or her. c. Culture plays a major role in cognitive development. d. Learning precedes development. 9. Which of the following statements summarizes Vygotsky’s theory of development? a. All children develop cognitively at the same rate. b. Social and cultural influences are not major factors in cognitive development. c. Learning is an individual activity. d. Experience creates learning. 10. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is based on: a. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development b. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development c. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development d. Gilligan’s theory of moral development 11. Which of the following statements about Gilligan’s theory of moral development is accurate? a. This theory is based on a sense of absolute right and wrong. b. This theory is gender specific. c. This theory is dependent on one’s stage of cognitive development. d. This theory is based on the premise that women view situations in terms of rules. 12. A nurse is caring for a person with the nursing diagnosis of chronic sorrow related to missed opportunities. Which of the following nursing interventions would be appropriate for this person? a. Sharing a personal story with the person to demonstrate empathy b. Assuring the person that he or she will be able to cope with the illness c. Encouraging the person to discuss his or her fears d. Contacting a support group representative for the person 13. A nurse is teaching parents of a toddler about nutrition. Which of the following statements should be made by the nurse? a. “Raisins are a good finger food because they provide fiber.” b. “Grapes are a good snack choice because they help toddlers meet their daily fruit requirements.” c. “Hot dogs are not a safe food choice because they may cause choking.” d. “A small piece of chewing gum will help strengthen jaw muscle; just be sure he or she does not swallow it.” 14. A nurse who is conducting a parenting class is asked how to select a good day care center for an 18-month-old child. Which of the following responses should be made by the nurse? a. “Day care centers that schedule age-appropriate educational videos increase verbal ability.” b. “Human interaction increases a toddler’s verbal skills, so select a day care center that values adult-to-toddler interaction.” c. “Learning to understand the meaning of words is increased when toddlers are exposed to educational DVDs, so select a day care center that has an extensive library of age-appropriate, educational DVDs.” d. “There really is no difference in the quality of day care centers based on whether or not videos or DVDs are used for educational purposes.” 15. A high school sophomore engages in risky behavior to fit in with his peers. According to Erikson’s theory of human development, which of the following developmental conflicts is this student facing? a. Initiative versus guilt b. Industry versus inferiority c. Identity versus role confusion d. Intimacy versus isolation 16. A child is focused on peer approval and avoidance of “not fitting in.” According to Kohlberg, this child is experiencing which of the following stages of moral development? a. Preconventional b. Conventional c. Postconventional d. Preoperational 17. The nurse is caring for a person who donated a kidney to a stranger in need. According to Gilligan’s stages of moral development, the person who donated the kidney is in which of the following stages? a. Preconventional b. Conventional c. Postconventional d. Midconventional MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. A nurse is attending a continuing education program about growth and development. Why is it necessary that nurses are well educated about this content? (select all that apply) a. Have a better understanding of genetics and genomics b. Can meet the requirements of Healthy People 2010 c. Can provide more effective health education d. Can deliver anticipatory guidance to families 2. A nurse is educating new parents about normal growth and development for their child. Which of the following items would the nurse include in this discussion? (select all that apply) a. Trends in childhood obesity b. Availability of a well-balanced diet c. Exposure to lead-based pain d. Height/weight of relatives 3. The school nurse is conducting an in-service program for teachers that discusses the development of elementary school children. According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, which of the following information would the nurse include? (select all that apply) a. Use abstract thought to discuss a story. b. Make moral decisions concerning right and wrong actions. c. Listen to a peer’s point of view about a playground situation. d. Be influenced by his or her friends.

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