Nutrition 101 Final Exam / NUTRI 101 Final Exam (2020): Straighterline (Verified answers, Scored A)
Nutrition 101 Final Exam Question1 What is the major monosaccharide found in the human body? Select one: a. glucose b. sucrose c. lactose d. galactose Question2 Which of these is a complex carbohydrate that cannot be broken down by the human digestive process? Select one: a. amino acid b. simple sugar c. starch d. fiber Question3 What is the purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010? Select one: a. to help people with specific diseases requiring special diet information b. to provide dietary guidelines for Americans from birth to old age c. to support the premise that nutrients should come primarily from supplements d. to help Americans choose an overall healthful diet Question4 How much moderate-intensity exercise is recommended in order to decrease an individual’s risk of chronic disease? Select one: a. 30 minutes per day b. 45 minutes per day c. 60 minutes per day d. 90 minutes per day Question5 What is an advantage of fat as a source of fuel for exercise? Select one: a. It can be utilized during intense, short-term exercise. b. It is the most efficient fuel source for anaerobic exercise. c. The body can utilize it quickly and efficiently. d. It supplies more than twice the energy of carbohydrates. Question6 In the human body, when is glycogen synthesis greatest? Select one: a. during sleep b. upon rising in the morning c. preceding strenuous activity d. immediately following exercise Question7 What is the first step in the production of energy from food? Select one: a. anaerobic breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm b. conversion of food energy to ATP c. aerobic breakdown of nutrients in the mitochondria d. anabolic metabolism of vitamins and minerals Question8 A cell’s genetic material is contained in its Select one: a. endoplasmic reticulum. b. nucleus. c. mitochondria. d. Golgi complex. Question9 The primary functions of epithelial tissue in the lining of the respiratory tract are to Select one: a. facilitate communication with the brain and other organs. b. support and protect the lungs, store fat, and produce blood cells. c. hold internal structures together and facilitate movement. d. secrete important substances, absorb nutrients, and excrete waste. Question10 What happens in the human body when too much Vitamin C is consumed via supplements? Select one: a. It is stored in muscle and liver. b. The body converts it to its active form. c. It will all be used for metabolic processes. d. It is excreted in the feces and urine. Question11 What substances manufactured by the endocrine glands act as chemical messengers in the body? Select one: a. enzymes b. genes c. hormones d. proteases Question12 What is the term for the partially digested food mixture as it leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine? Select one: a. chyme b. bile c. mucus d. chyle Question13 How does the body regulate blood glucose levels after a meal? Select one: a. Glycogen is released from muscles. b. Epinephrine is released by the adrenal glands. c. Insulin is released from the pancreas. d. Glucagon is released from the pancreas. Question14 Which of these is the only animal-derived food that contains a significant amount of carbohydrates? Select one: a. beef b. eggs c. milk d. poultry Question15 Which enzyme breaks down carbohydrate? Select one: a. lipase b. protease c. amylase d. dextrose Question16 What product is formed as a result of the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrates are not available to the body? Select one: a. glycogen b. ketones c. insulin d. cholesterol Question17 Which type of fats can raise the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level in the blood? Select one: a. saturated b. monounsaturated c. polyunsaturated d. essential Question18 Which of the following is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? Select one: a. HDL > 40 mg/dl b. LDL < 200 mg/dl c. total cholesterol > 150 mg/dl d. blood pressure >139/89 mg HG Question19 If a 100-calorie serving of food has 10 grams of fat, what percentage of the calories in that food is fat? Select one: a. 90% b. 70% c. 40% d. 10% Question20 Plant proteins are considered incomplete when they are missing which of these? Select one: a. peptide bonds b. gelatin c. branch chained amino acids d. essential amino acids Question21 Edema can be caused by a lack of which substance in the bloodstream? Select one: a. cholesterol b. triglycerides c. protein d. glucose Question22 The enzymatic digestion of protein begins in the Select one: a. mouth. b. esophagus. c. stomach. d. small intestine. Question23 Based on the RDA, how many grams of protein would a healthy 125-pound woman need daily? Select one: a. 46 b. 56 c. 66 d. 76 Question24 Which of the following is closely correlated with an increase in basal metabolic rate? Select one: a. being a female b. having a smaller body surface area per body volume c. having greater lean body mass d. undergoing an extreme dieting regime Question25 Joe is 25 years old and weighs 154 pounds. What would be Joe’s 24-hour estimated basal metabolic rate? Select one: a. 70 kcal/24 hours b. 1680 kcal/24 hours c. 1848 kcal/24 hours d. 3696 kcal/24 hours Question26 Which term refers to the minimum amount of energy required to maintain the body at rest? Select one: a. basal metabolism b. physical activity caloric expenditure c. thermic effect of food d. thermogenesis Question27 What theory proposes that everyone has a genetically determined body weight that is maintained through internal controls? Select one: a. environmental theory b. external cue theory c. internal cue theory d. set point theory Question28 In which list are all of the vitamins fat-soluble? Select one: a. Vitamins A, B, C, D b. Vitamins A, D, E, K c. Vitamins B, C, D, E d. Vitamins B, D, E, K Question29 What is the primary role of Vitamin D in the body? Select one: a. to carry oxygen in the blood to the cells b. to help regulate calcium and bone metabolism c. to help regulate the heart beat d. to act as an antioxidant Question30 Where is most Vitamin A stored in the body? Select one: a. liver b. kidneys c. heart d. small intestine Question31 Which vitamin is synthesized in the skin with exposure to UVB rays? Select one: a. Vitamin A b. Vitamin B-6 c. Vitamin C d. Vitamin D Question32 Iron absorption is enhanced by the consumption of Select one: a. eggs. b. chicken. c. peas. d. oranges. Question33 Why does an increase in energy expenditure require an increase in B complex vitamins? Select one: a. They provide minimal calories. b. They are involved in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. c. They have a high bioavailability. d. They regulate calcium absorption. Question34 What compound is necessary for the absorption of Vitamin B-12? Select one: a. intrinsic factor b. insulin c. Vitamin D d. calcium Question35 How does sodium maintain appropriate fluid balance in the body? Select one: a. In osmosis, sodium acts as the major positive ion in the extracellular fluid. b. In osmosis, sodium acts as the major negative ion in the extracellular fluid. c. In osmosis, sodium acts as the major positive ion in the intracellular fluid. d. In osmosis, sodium acts as the major negative ion in the intracellular fluid. Question36 Which mineral is important in regulating the human heartbeat? Select one: a. iron b. potassium c. sodium d. zinc Question37 Goiter is caused by a deficiency of Select one: a. fluoride. b. iodine. c. magnesium. d. sodium. Question38 While Jim was running a marathon he lost 2.5 pounds. How much fluid should Jim have consumed to prevent dehydration? Select one: a. 10-19 ounces b. 20-39 ounces c. 40-49 ounces d. 50-60 ounces Question39 Why does excessive intake of alcohol result in dehydration? Select one: a. Alcohol is high in calories. b. Antidiuretic hormone is inhibited by alcohol. c. Antidiuretic hormone is stimulated by alcohol. d. There is a decrease in urinary output. Question40 A decrease in urine output would likely be the result of a diet that is Select one: a. high in carbohydrates. b. high in protein and sodium. c. low in carbohydrates. d. low in protein and sodium. Question41 Which pituitary hormone signals the kidneys to conserve water by conserving sodium? Select one: a. aldosterone b. antidiuretic hormone c. glucagon d. insulin Question42 During which stage of the lifecycle can a prolonged deficiency in iron result in impaired cognitive development? Select one: a. early infancy b. early adulthood c. late adulthood d. pregnancy Question43 Which government program provides supplemental food vouchers specifically for low-income pregnant women and children? Select one: a. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) b. Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP) c. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) d. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Question44 Which is a symptom of anorexia? Select one: a. shame or embarrassment b. fluctuating weight of ±10 pounds c. erosion of tooth enamel d. rituals involving food and exercise Question45 Which statement describes a consequence of anorexia? Select one: a. The white blood cell count increases, leading to a higher number of infections. b. Body temperature is lowered, which results in decreased metabolism. c. The body conserves energy to combat semi-starvation. d. Heart rate increases to make up for other metabolic changes. Question46 Which of these is an effective means to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses? Select one: a. Increase the use of antibiotics in animal feed. b. Keep cold foods between 42-50 degrees F. c. Keep hot foods between 90-100 degrees F. d. Thaw foods in the refrigerator. Question47 According to the Environmental Protection Agency, which of the following is a useful strategy for reducing the intake of pesticide residue from foods? Select one: a. Thoroughly scrub, rinse, and peel fruits and vegetables. b. Limit the variety of foods eaten to avoid overexposure to chemicals. c. Consume only larger, more mature fish and not smaller, younger ones. d. Eat the outer leaves of compact leafy vegetables and discard the remainder. Question48 It is unlawful to add any amount of a cancer-causing substance to food, according to the Select one: a. GRAS list. b. USDA. c. Delaney Clause. d. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Question49 Which of the following is an unintended effect of the use of pesticides in food production? Select one: a. decreased food production b. shortened storage life of harvested crops c. destruction of natural predators of plant eating insects d. increased food costs Question50 Which food should be consumed no more than once per week to limit the intake of mercury? Select one: a. pickled vegetables b. shellfish c. fried foods d. swordfish Question51 Which of these actions helps to decrease the risk of pesticide exposure? Select one: a. Remove skin from poultry and fish. b. Store food at proper temperatures. c. Use ground meat within 1 to 2 days after purchase. d. Cook meats thoroughly. Question52 Which of these pregnancy complications can be reduced by 50% if a woman is physically active during pregnancy? Select one: a. low birth weight baby b. premature labor c. gestational diabetes d. cesarean section Question53 The body's need for iron increases during pregnancy because of the need to Select one: a. increase absorption of Vitamin C. b. reduce nausea. c. increase appetite. d. synthesize additional hemoglobin. Question54 It is recommended that a healthy woman of normal weight gain about how many pounds during pregnancy? Select one: a. up to 15 b. 16 to 25 c. 26 to 35 d. 36 to 45 Question55 After about six months, which mineral stores have been depleted in breast-fed babies? Select one: a. calcium b. iron c. magnesium d. iodine Question56 Why is it recommended that solids foods be introduced after six months of age? Select one: a. to prevent risk of choking b. to decrease risk of food allergies c. to meet increased caloric needs d. to meet increased calcium needs Question57 Which of the following can increase the risk of osteoporosis? Select one: a. higher lactase production b. increased absorption of calcium c. inadequate exposure to sunlight d. increased vitamin D synthesis Question58 What is one of the basic premises of the USDA/HHS Dietary Guidelines for Americans,2010? Select one: a. Most Americans can best meet their nutrient needs by taking supplements. b. Adults should consume 8 to 10 glasses of water every day. c. Nutrient needs should be met primarily through food consumption. d. Weight loss is best achieved with a low-carbohydrate diet. Question59 How does an active lifestyle help to slow some of the physiological changes that occur during aging? Select one: a. maintains muscle mass b. decreases body water c. decreases muscle elasticity d. increases fat stores Question60 Charlie is 75 years old and is complaining of problems with constipation. Which dietary recommendation may be appropriate to help Charlie establish more regular bowel habits? Select one: a. Decrease intake of sweets. b. Increase intake of calcium-rich foods. c. Increase intake of whole grains and water. d. Decrease intake of fat.