## Exam

# Chapter 20—Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics. All Answers

Chapter 20—Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics TRUE/FALSE 1. Descriptive statistics can summarize responses from large numbers of respondents in a few simple statistics. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 484 OBJ: LO: 20-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 2. All statistics that are appropriate to use for higher-order scales (ratio scales are the highest) are also appropriate to use with lower-order scales (nominal scales are the lowest). F All statistics appropriate for lower-order scales (nominal is the lowest) are suitable for higher-order scales (ratio is the highest). PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 484 OBJ: LO: 20-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 3. A planogram is a graphical way of showing the frequency distribution in which the height of a bar corresponds to the frequency of a category. F This is a histogram. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 485 OBJ: LO: 20-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 4. Tabulation refers to the orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 5. A simple tabulation of a variable’s frequency distribution is sometimes called a marginal tabulation. T PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 6. Cross-tabulation allows the inspection and comparison of differences among groups based on interval or ratio measures. F Cross-tabulation allows the inspection and comparison of differences among groups based on nominal or ordinal categories. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 7. A contingency table is a data matrix that displays the frequency of some combination of possible responses to multiple variables. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 487 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 8. The row and column totals in a contingency table are called subtotals because they are less than the total. F They are called marginals because they appear in the table’s margins. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 487 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 9. Researchers usually are most interested in the marginals in a contingency table. F They usually are more interested in the inner cells of a contingency table. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 488 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 10. A 3 x 4 table represents a contingency table with twelve variables. F This represents a two-way contingency table displaying two variables - one with three levels and the other with four levels. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 488 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 11. The reference base is the number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages in a cross-tabulation. F This is referred to as the statistical base. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 488 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 12. A common form of elaboration analysis is to do cross-tabulation of data within subgroups of the sample under study. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 490 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 13. When a third variable inserted into the analysis changes the results when two other variables were studied previously, this third variable is called a moderator variable. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 490 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 14. Importance-performance analysis is another name for quadrant analysis. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 491 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 15. When responses to two rating scale questions are plotted in four quadrants of a two- dimensional table, the result is called a histogram. F This is called quadrant analysis. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 491 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 16. The process of changing data from their original form to a format that more closely fits the research objectives of the research study is called data transformation. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 491 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 17. Combining the data from adjacent categories of a Likert-scale item is a common form of data transformation. T PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 492 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 18. When a data set is bimodal, a median split of the data will lead to error. F This approach is best applied only when the data do indeed exhibit bimodal characteristics. When a data set is unimodal, a median split of the data will lead to error. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 493 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 19. A category split means respondents below the observed median go into one category and respondents above the median go into another. F This is called a median split. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 493 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 20. Index numbers allow researchers to track a variable’s value over time and compare a variable with other variables. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 494 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 21. If the data are time-related, then a base year is usually chosen when calculating an index number. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 494 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 22. When ranking data are transformed, the frequency of the ranking score should be divided by the score. F The transformation involves multiplying the frequency by the ranking score for each choice to result in a new scale. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 494 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 23. The purpose of a table in a research report is to summarize and communicate the meaning of the data to the reader. T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 496 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 24. Even with today’s advances in technology, computing power is still a barrier to completing a research project. F Today, computing power is seldom a barrier to completing a research project. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 497 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 25. SPSS and SAS are common statistical software packages used in business research. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 497 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 26. Box and whisker plots provide graphic representations of central tendencies, percentiles, variabilities, and the shapes of frequency distributions. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 498 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 27. The interquartile range is a measure of central tendency. F It is a measure of variability. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 498 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 28. An extreme value that lies far outside of the normal range of most of the data in a distribution (either as a very high score or as a very low score) is called an anomaly. F An extreme value that lies far outside of the normal range of most of the data in a distribution (either as a very high score or as a very low score) is called an outlier. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 499 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 29. In business research, the process of interpretation should explain the meaning of the data in the research study to the reader of the research report. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 500 OBJ: LO: 20-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 30. Data must always be interpreted. F Data are sometimes merely reported and not interpreted. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 500 OBJ: LO: 20-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The transformation of raw data into a form that makes the data easier to understand and to interpret is called _____. a. descriptive analysis b. outlier analysis c. computer mapping d. creating a box and whisker plot A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 484 OBJ: LO: 20-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 2. All of the following are examples of descriptive statistics EXCEPT _____. a. p-value b. average c. range d. standard deviation A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 484 OBJ: LO: 20-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 3. Which of the following is a graphical way of showing the frequency distribution in which the height of a bar corresponds to the frequency of a category? a. perceptual map b. histogram c. contingency table d. frequency chart B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 485 OBJ: LO: 20-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 4. Arranging data into a table is called _____. a. tabulation b. frequency c. analysis d. interpretation A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 5. Counting the number of responses to questions in a survey by hand is called _____. a. index analysis b. tallying c. elaboration analysis d. moderator analysis B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 6. Arranging data so that the number of times each category occurs is called a _____ table. a. cross-tabulation b. frequency c. percentage d. pre-coding B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 7. A researcher is creating a table to present to a client that gives the number of respondents selecting the various product concepts of interest in the study. The client will use this information in the decision of which product concept to pursue. This table is referred to as a _____. a. frequency table b. concept table c. results table d. decision table A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 8. Counting the number of responses to different parts of a question in a survey and arranging these responses in a frequency distribution is called _____. a. elaboration analysis b. spurious analysis c. marginal tabulation d. index analysis C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 9. If 60 males are asked if they recognize the brand name, "Focus," and 35 of them correctly identify the product as a model of Ford’s product line within Ford Motor Co., the proportion of males in the sample who recognize this brand name is approximately _____. a. 0.60 b. 0.58 c. 0.35 d. 0.79 B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-02 NAT: AACSB Analytic| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 10. Which of the following is the appropriate technique for addressing research questions involving relationships among multiple less-than interval variables? a. cross-tabulation b. ANOVA c. regression d. cluster analysis A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 486 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 11. If a business wants to know if more males or females work in its two manufacturing facilities, which of the following answers this question? a. regression analysis b. cluster analysis c. cross-tabulation d. interaction analysis C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 487 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 12. A researcher interested in a data matrix that displays the frequency of some combination of possible responses to multiple variables should construct a _____. a. perceptual map b. contingency table c. regression equation d. marginal table B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 487 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 13. A researcher is examining the row and column totals in a contingency table of stores shopped at by gender. What are these called? a. marginals b. subtotals c. totals d. running totals A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 487 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 14. If a researcher wants to summarize the responses of subjects by gender and awareness of a particular brand ("Yes" or "No"), he or she would use a ______ contingency table. a. 1 x 2 b. 2 x 2 c. 2 x 3 d. normal B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 488 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 15. The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages in a contingency table is referred to as a(n) _____. a. reference point b. moderator c. statistical base d. analytical point C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 488 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 16. The conventional rule for computing percentages in a contingency table is to compute the percentages in the direction of the _____. a. independent variable b. marginal totals c. dependent variable d. column mean A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 489 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 17. An analysis of the basic cross-tabulation for each level of a variable not previously considered, such as subgroups of the sample, is referred to as _____. a. group analysis b. cluster analysis c. ANOVA d. elaboration analysis D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 490 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 18. Breaking down the answer to the question: "Have you ever purchased a ticket online for an American Airlines flight?" into subgroups based on gender and zip code is an example of _____. a. a box and whisker plot analysis b. an index number c. elaboration analysis d. interquartile analysis C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 490 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 19. When a third variable is included in the analysis that is studying the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable, and this third variable changes the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable in an important way, this third variable is called a(n) _____. a. spurious variable b. moderator variable c. contingency variable d. outlier variable B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 490 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 20. It is hypothesized that an individual’s need for cognition will influence the impact an advertising execution will have on attitudes toward the brand advertised. Need for cognition, then, is considered which type of variable? a. dependent variable b. external variable c. internal variable d. moderating variable D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 490 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 21. _____ is an extension of cross-tabulation in which responses to two rating-scale questions are plotted in four quadrants of a two-dimensional table. a. Squared-analysis b. Importance-performance analysis c. Quadrant analysis d. ANOVA C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 491 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 22. An analysis that compares the answer to the question: "How important is each of these attributes to you for an overnight delivery service?" (e.g. on-time delivery, accurate invoicing, price, and so forth) when comparing several delivery service companies with a rating scale that rates these companies on the quality of their service on these same attributes is known as a(n) _____. a. moderator analysis b. contingency analysis c. importance-performance analysis d. index analysis C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 491 OBJ: LO: 20-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 23. _____ is the process of changing the data from their original form to a format suitable for performing a data analysis addressing research objectives. a. Data coding b. Data editing c. Data entry d. Data transformation D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 491 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 24. Another name for data transformation is _____. a. index analysis b. data conversion c. quadrant analysis d. data exchange B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 491 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 25. When a respondent's answers to ten Likert-scale items are added up to form a total score for these questions, this is an example of _____. a. data indexing b. data transformation c. contingency analysis d. data indexing B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 491 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 26. When a researcher combines the "Strongly Disagree" and "Disagree" responses on a Likert scale item to a single "Strongly Disagree/Disagree" percentage, this is an example of _____. a. data indexing b. collapsing the data c. the outlier effect d. a box and whisker plot B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 492 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 27. Dividing a data set into two categories by placing respondents below the median in one category and respondents above the median in another is called a(n) _____. a. median split b. mediation c. elaboration analysis d. bimodal split A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 493 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 28. Data with which type of distribution are appropriate for division based on the median split? a. normally distributed b. unimodal distribution c. bimodal distribution d. uniform distribution C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 493 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 29. Scores or observations recalibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number are referred to as _____. a. index numbers b. rank orders c. elaborated numbers d. real numbers A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 494 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 30. If the price of Brand A is transformed to a value of 100 and Brand B’s value is 75, indicating its price is 25 percent lower than Brand A’s price, 100 and 75 represent _____. a. nominal rankings b. bivariate statistics c. p-values d. index numbers D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 494 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 31. Index numbers require which level of measurement? a. nominal b. interval c. ratio d. ranked C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 494 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 32. Which of the following is used to simplify and clarify data? a. tables b. graphs c. charts d. all of these choices D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 496 OBJ: LO: 20-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 33. All of the following are software packages that can be used for data analysis EXCEPT _____. a. Excel b. SPSS c. Word d. SAS C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 496 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 34. A researcher desires a graphical representation of central tendencies, percentiles, variabilities, and the shapes of frequency distributions of the data. Which of the following will do this for the researcher? a. interquartile map b. box and whisker plot c. perceptual map d. histogram B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 498 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 35. A researcher is reviewing average household income data and sees that one household reported an annual income of over $1 million. This value lies outside the normal range of the data and is called a(n) _____. a. abnormality b. marginal c. outlier d. quartile C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 499 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 36. A measure of variability that is often called by the term midspread is _____. a. interquartile range b. confidence interval c. p-value d. median A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 498 OBJ: LO: 20-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 37. When a researcher makes inferences about the meaning of the data from a research study and draws conclusions about what these data mean in terms of their implications, this is an example of _____. a. data analysis b. data interpretation c. data transformation d. data conclusion B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 500 OBJ: LO: 20-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge COMPLETION 1. _____ analysis is the elementary transformation of data in a way that describes the basic characteristics such as central tendency, distribution, and variability. 2. A(n) _____ is a graphical way of showing a frequency distribution in which the height of a bar corresponds to the frequency of a category. 3. The orderly arrangement of data into a table is known as ______. 4. The arrangement of data into a row-and-column format that gives the number of responses for each category of the variable is known as a(n) ______ table. 5. When tabulation is done by hand to create a frequency table, this is called ______ the data. 6. The appropriate technique for addressing research questions involving relationships among multiple less-than interval variables is _____. 7. When the responses to two survey questions are presented as a cross-tabulation of the two variables studied in these two questions, the result is called a(n) ______ table. 8. A two-way contingency table is referred to as a(n) _____ table. 9. The _____ is the number of respondents or observations used as a basis for computing percentages. 10. An analysis of the cross-tabulations for each level of a variable as it applies to sub-groups of the sample is known as ______ analysis. 11. When a third variable changes in important ways the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable, this third variable is called a(n) ______ variable. 12. When responses to two rating scale questions are plotted in four quadrants of a two- dimensional graph, this is called ______ analysis. 13. _____ analysis is another name for quadrant analysis. 14. The process of changing data from its original form to a format that more closely matches the research objectives of the study is called data ______. 15. Researchers often perform a(n) _____ to collapse a scale with multiple response points into two categories. 16. Scores or observations recalibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number are called _____ numbers. 17. A graphic representation of the range, central tendency, percentiles, and variabilities of a variable is called a(n) ______ plot. 18. A measure of variability in a box and whisker plot is called the _____ range. 19. A value that lies far beyond the range of the rest of the data set is called a(n) ______. 20. Making inferences about the data and drawing conclusions about the implications suggested by a research study is called ______. ESSAY 1. What is descriptive analysis and how is it used in marketing research? 2. Explain what a contingency table is and discuss how it is useful in business research. 3. Explain what an index number is and how it is computed. What level of measurement is required to compute index numbers? 4. Explain the components of a box and whisker plot. 5. Explain the process and importance of interpretation in business research.