Chapter 19—Editing and Coding: Transforming Raw Data into Information. All Answers - $9.49   Add to cart

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Chapter 19—Editing and Coding: Transforming Raw Data into Information. All Answers

Chapter 19—Editing and Coding: Transforming Raw Data into Information 1. Raw data lends itself well to analysis. F Raw data are the unedited response from a respondent exactly as indicated by that respondent and may not be in a form that lends itself well to data analysis. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 459 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 2. Mistakes that are made by the respondent in a phone survey are called nonrespondent errors. F Nonrespondent error is a mistake made by an interviewer or by a person responsible for creating an electronic data file representing the responses. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 459 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 3. An important part of the editing, coding,and filing stages of data analysis is checking for errors. T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 460 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 4. Data completeness refers to the notion that the data file actually contains the information that the researcher promised the decision maker. F This is referred to as data integrity. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 460 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 5. The purpose of editing is to ensure that the data are complete, consistent, and readable. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 460 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 6. Data should never be reconstructed. F A data editor may have to reconstruct data. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 460 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 7. Field editing is done on the same day as the interview to catch legibility of handwriting and clarify responses that are logically or conceptually inconsistent. T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 461 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 8. In-house editing rigorously investigates the results of data collection. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 461 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 9. Technology has reduced errors by checking for inconsistencies automatically. T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 10. Abandoned item is the technical term for items left blank. F The term is item nonresponse. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 11. One way to deal with missing values is to randomly select an answer. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 12. The editor can impute a missing value based on the average value of all other respondents answers to that question. F Imputed values are usually based on the respondent’s choices to other questions, not the average response by all respondents. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 13. With respect to deletions for missing data, listwise deletion means the data that the respondent did provide can still be used in statistical analyses. F This is pairwise deletion. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 464 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 14. Coding is the process of assigning a numerical score or other character symbol to previously edited data. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 465 OBJ: LO: 19-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 15. In qualitative research, codes are usually words or phrases that represent themes.. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 465 OBJ: LO: 19-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 16. Dummy coding can be used for dichotomous responses like “yes “or “no.” T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 466 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 17. A record is a collection of characters that represent a single type of data. F This is a field. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 18. A string is a collection of related fields in a data file. F A record is a collection of related fields in a data file. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 19. Character labels are unique labels assigned to each possible numeric code for a response. F This describes value labels. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 20. The idea that the coding categories used should allow for all possible responses to the question is another way of saying that the data should be mutually exclusive. F This means the coding categories should be exhaustive. Mutually exclusive means that there should be no overlap among the categories and that a subject or response can be placed in only one category. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 469 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 21. When a survey is highly unstructured, it is possible to precode the response categories before the data are collected. F Questionnaires need to be highly structured for precoding before the data are collected to be possible. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 470 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 22. The purpose of coding open-ended questions is to reduce the large number of individual responses to a few general categories of answers that can be assigned numerical codes. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 471 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 23. Test tabulation is the tallying of a small sample of the total number of replies to a particular question, T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 472 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 24. Devising a coding scheme ahead of time is important because the categories cannot be expanded or collapsed once data are collected. F When a coding method produces more categories than are deemed important during a later stage of the research, the categories can be reduced to a smaller number of categories by combining categories. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 472 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 25. A data sheet documents the location of each variable in a data matrix. F This is called a code book. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 475 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The unedited responses from a respondent exactly as indicated by that respondent are referred to as _____. a. codes b. files c. raw data d. strings C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 459 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 2. A data error that the respondent is not responsible for creating is called a(n) _____ error. a. systematic b. nonrespondent c. random d. raw data B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 459 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 3. Kelsea is an interviewer and incorrectly entered respondents’ choices on ten surveys. This type of error is called _____. a. nonrespondent error b. respondent error c. random error d. editing error A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 459 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 4. Which of the following refers to the notion that the data file actually contains the information that the researcher is trying to obtain to adequately address research questions? a. data reliability b. data verification c. data completeness d. data integrity D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 460 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 5. When a field interviewer records an impossible answer (e.g. birthdate: 1861), this means that the data need to be _____. a. edited b. transformed using a plug value c. coded d. deleted A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 460 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 6. Which of the following need to be corrected as part of the editing process? a. omissions b. legibility c. consistency d. all of these choices D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 7. Preliminary editing by a field supervisor on the same day as the interview to catch technical omissions, check legibility of handwriting, and clarify responses that are logically or conceptually inconsistent is called _____. a. field editing b. primary editing c. first-order editing d. external editing A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 461 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 8. Josh has conducted six in-depth interviews in one day and goes back to his hotel room and checks the data he collected to ensure they are complete and make sense. Josh is conducting _____. a. in-house editing b. coding c. verification d. field editing D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 461 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 9. _____ editing rigorously investigates the results of data collection, usually in a centralized office. a. In-house b. Primary c. Secondary d. Higher-order A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 461 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 10. When Arbitron has its own staff verify the accuracy of radio-station call letters (e.g. KMOX) to ensure that they are possible radio call letters in the geographical area of the respondent, this is an example of _____. a. external editing b. in-house editing c. in-house coding d. external coding B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 461 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 11. _____ is the technical term for items left blank. a. Imputation b. Item plug c. Item nonresponse d. Item inconsistency C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 12. A researcher has decided to insert a response for items not answered by respondents. This answer the editor inserts is referred to as a(n) _____. a. proxy value b. simulated value c. imputation d. plug value D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 13. All of the following are choices available when dealing with missing data EXCEPT _____. a. leave the response blank b. randomly select an answer c. insert the mean value of a variable for the missing response d. tabulate the data D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 14. Many researchers use a statistical process to provide an educated guess for missing responses in data based on the respondent’s choices to other questions. Which method of dealing with missing data does this represent? a. impute a missing value b. plug in a neutral response c. plug in alternative choices for missing data d. randomly select an answer A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 463 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 15. A method of handling missing data in which only the actual variables for a respondent that do not contain information are eliminated from use in statistical analyses is called _____. a. listwise deletion b. pairwise deletion c. selective deletion d. partial deletion B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 464 OBJ: LO: 19-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 16. The assignment of numbers to edited data is known as ____. a. editing b. adjusting with a plug value c. coding d. all of these choices C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 465 OBJ: LO: 19-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 17. Assigning males the value of zero and females the value of one in a database to record the gender of the respondents is an example of _____. a. coding b. test tabulation c. editing d. verification A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 465 OBJ: LO: 19-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 18. Codes are rules for ______ data. a. interpreting b. classifying c. recording d. all of these choices D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 465 OBJ: LO: 19-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 19. Assigning a “1” or “0” code where each number represents an alternate response such as “yes” or “no,” is an example of _____. a. editing b. dummy coding c. reverse coding d. plugging B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 466 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 20. A survey question asked respondent how much of the Super Bowl they watched by asking them to check one of the four following choices: “all of it,” “most of it,” “some of it,” or “none of it.” How many dummy variables would a researcher need to dummy code this question? a. one b. two c. three d. four C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 466 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Analytic| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 21. A collection of characters that represents a single type of data, usually a variable, is called a _____. a. field b. data file c. value label d. string file A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 22. Which of the following is computer terminology to represent formatting a variable using a series of alphabetic characters (nonnumeric characters) that may form a word? a. phonics b. value labels c. record d. string characters D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 23. A collection of related fields that represents the responses from one sampling unit is known as a _____. a. file b. record c. code d. label B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 24. A collection of related records is known as a _____. a. data file b. code c. record d. field A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 25. Unique labels assigned to each possible numeric code for a response are called _____. a. identifiers b. value labels c. data labels d. characters B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 26. A researcher has assigned “1” to represent freshman, “2” for sophomore, “3” for junior, “4” for senior, and “5” for graduate student. These labels (i.e., freshman, sophomore, etc.) assigned to the numeric code are called _____. a. value labels b. coding labels c. cues d. strings A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 467 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 27. The idea that the coding categories applied to a given question should allow all possible answers to the question to receive a code is another way of saying that the coding categories should be _____. a. mutually exclusive b. precoded c. exhaustive d. complete C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 469 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 28. Which of the following means that coding categories have no overlap so that a subject or response can be placed in only one category? a. exhaustive b. mutually exclusive c. unique d. precoded B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 469 OBJ: LO: 19-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 29. Which of the rules for coding has been violated by the following responses to a question about annual salary? Under $20,000 $20,000 - $40,000 $40,000 - $60,000 Above $60,000 a. Coding categories should be exhaustive. b. Coding categories should be mutually exclusive. c. Coding categories should be test tabulated. d. Coding categories should be alphabetic only. B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 469 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 30. Which of the following can be used if the researcher knows what answer categories exist before data collection occurs? a. test tabulation b. sheet coding c. precoding d. field editing C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 470 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 31. In test tabulation, what is the typical percentage of responses from completed questionnaires that a researcher will use to create coding categories? a. 10 percent b. 20 percent c. 30 percent d. 50 percent B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 472 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 32. In creating coding categories for open-ended questions, the tallying of the replies to a small number of completed questionnaires for a question in order to create coding categories for that question is known as _____. a. recoding the data b. test tabulation c. data entry d. creating a plug value B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 472 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 33. A(n) _____ is a book that identifies each variable in a study and gives the variable’s description, code name, and position in the data matrix. a. data directory b. data plan c. record file d. code book D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 475 OBJ: LO: 19-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 34. Which of the following is the activity of transferring data from a research project to computers? a. data formatting b. data entry c. data scanning d. data transformation B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 476 OBJ: LO: 19-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 35. Valerie’s job at a research firm is to transfer data from survey questionnaires to a computer file. Her job is _____. a. data entry b. data coding c. data editing d. data scanning A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 476 OBJ: LO: 19-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 36. A data processing input device that reads material directly from mark-sensed questionnaires is called a(n) _____. a. direct-entry mode b. verified entry system c. tabulation scanning system d. optical scanning system D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 476 OBJ: LO: 19-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge COMPLETION 1. The unedited information gathered from a respondent in the exact form as provided by that respondent is called _____ data. 2. Data _____ refers to the notion that the data file actually contains the information that the researcher promised the decision maker. 3. The process of checking and adjusting data for omissions, legibility, and consistency is known as ______. 4. When a field supervisor checks data at the end of each day that it is collected to catch technical omissions (e.g. missing responses to questions), this is an example of ______. 5. When a research organization does the editing of its data using its own staff, this is known as ______ editing. 6. A question on a survey that has not been answered by the respondent is called a(n) ______. 7. When an editor replaces a missing answer to a question with a random response from among the fixed-alternative responses for that question or inserts a neutral response, the number inserted is called a(n) ______. 8. A method of handling missing data in which only the actual variables for a respondent that do not contain information are eliminated from use in statistical analyses is called _____ deletion. 9. Assigning numbers to edited data is known as _____. 10. Rules for interpreting, classifying, and recording data are known as _____. 11. _____ coding involves numeric 0 or 1 coding where each number represents an alternative response such as “female” or “male.” 12. A collection of characters that usually represents a single type of data like a variable is called a(n) _____. 13. A collection of related fields that represent the responses from one sampling unit is called a(n) _____. 14. A collection of related records that make up a data set is called a(n) _______ . 15. When a word or a short phrase can be associated with a numeric code, this code is called a(n) ________. 16. A coding scheme that has a code for all possible responses is said to be _____. 17. Constructing coding categories by tallying a small number of responses to a particular question is known as ______. 18. A(n) _____ documents the location of each variable in a data matrix. 19. The activity of transferring data from a research project to computers is called ______. 20. A data processing device that reads data from mark-sensed surveys into the computer is called a(n) ______ system. ESSAY 1. Define field editing and list the three things a field supervisor is looking for when conducting field editing. 2. You have collected data using a survey and realize that a few respondents did not answer all of the questions. Explain what you can do about this and also explain how most statistical programs accommodate an occasional missing response. 3. Discuss the elements of data files, such as field, string characters, record, data file, and value label. 4. Discuss the two basic rules for code construction. 5. Discuss how data are entered into a computerized data processing system.

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Chapters 1-25 for Business Research Methods | 9th Edition William G. Zikmund/Barry J. Babin/Jon C. Carr/Mitch Griffin

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