Chapter 12—Experimental Research. All Answers - $9.49   Add to cart

Exam

Chapter 12—Experimental Research. All Answers

Chapter 12—Experimental Research TRUE/FALSE 1. Experimental research attempts to find causal relationships among variables. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 254 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 2. In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the dependent variable and measures its effect on the independent variable. F The researcher manipulates the independent variable(s) and measures its effect on the dependent variable. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 254 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 3. Participants in experimental research are typically referred to as respondents. F Participants in experimental research are referred to as subjects rather than respondents. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 4. In experimental research, independent variables are simply measured. F In experimental research, independent variables are created rather than simply measured. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 5. An experimental construct refers to one of the possible levels of an experimental variable manipulation. F This describes an experimental condition. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 6. Covariates are categorical variables like a subject’s gender or ethnicity. F Categorical variables such as these are called blocking variables. Covariates are continuous variables. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 7. An experimental treatment is the term referring to the way an experimental variable is manipulated. T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 258 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 8. A control group is one in which an experimental treatment is administered. F This is an experimental group. A control group is one in which no experimental treatment is administered. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 258 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 9. An experiment can have only one experimental variable. F Experiments can have more than one independent (i.e, experimental) variable. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 259 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 10. A cell refers to a treatment combination within an experiment. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 259 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 11. Products are the most common test units in most marketing experiments. F Test units are the subjects or entities whose responses to the experimental treatment are measured, so people are the most common test units in most marketing experiments. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 260 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 12. The most common procedure to try to ensure that experimental and control groups do not differ from each other in important ways at the beginning of a research study is random assignment of subjects to treatment and control groups. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 261 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 13. Systematic error can occur in experiments. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 261 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 14. A confound in an experiment means that there is a spurious relationship between the independent and dependent variables. T A confound in an experiment means that there is an alternative explanation beyond the experimental variables for any observed differences in the dependent variable, which was described as a spurious relationship in a previous chapter. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 262 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 15. John correctly guessed that the purpose of an experiment he was participating in was to examine the effect of giving employees recognition on his attitude and intention to stay with his company, which creates a confound known as a bias effect. F This is called a demand effect. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 263 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 16. One way to reduce demand characteristics is to tell subjects the purpose of the experiment so they will be more willing to participate honestly. F One way of reducing demand characteristics is to use an experimental disguise. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 265 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 17. A confound is an experimental deception involving a false treatment. F This is a placebo. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 265 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 18. The people administering an experiment must be aware of the experimental hypotheses. F One way to reduce demand characteristics is to use a “blind” experimental administrator who does not now the experimental hypotheses. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 265 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 19. As long as the researcher debriefs subjects, any experimental deception is acceptable. F If subjects have been injured significantly or truly psychologically harmed, debriefing will not return them to their former condition and the experiment should not proceed. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 267 OBJ: LO: 12-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 20. Factorial experimental designs are the least sophisticated type of experimental design. F Factorial experimental designs are more sophisticated than basic experimental designs. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 267 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 21. A tachistoscope is often used in experiments to control the amount of time a subject is exposed to a visual image. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 268 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 22. When a test market is conducted in five retail stores in Erie, Pennsylvania, this is an example of an external experiment. F This is an example of a field experiment. PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 268 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 23. Between-subjects designs involve repeated measures because with each treatment the same subject is measured. F This describes a within-subjects design. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 270 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 24. The question as to whether the experimental treatment was the "sole cause" of the changes in the dependent variable is the basic issue in internal validity. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 271 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 25. A cohort effect in an experiment is a function of time and the naturally occurring events that coincide with growth and experience. F This is a maturation effect. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 272 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 26. A mortality effect occurs when some subjects withdraw from the experiment before it is completed. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 273 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 27. Field experiments tend to have less external validity than laboratory experiments. F External validity is increased when the subjects truly represent some population and when the results extend to market segments or other groups of people. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 273 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 28. If only one variable is manipulated in an experiment, it has a primary experimental design. F If only one variable is manipulated in an experiment, it has a basic experimental design. PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 274 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 29. A 3 x 3 factorial experiment requires six combinations of treatment groups. F It requires nine combinations of treatment groups (3 x 3 = 9). PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 281 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Analytic| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 30. Factorial designs allow researchers to measure interaction effects. T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 281 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Experiments are widely used in which type of research designs? a. causal b. descriptive c. exploratory d. nonspurious A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 254 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 2. "Does package size affect consumption rates in snack products?" is a typical question in what type of research design? a. descriptive research b. time-series research c. experimental research d. phone surveys C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 254 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 3. The sampling units in experiments are referred to as ____. a. conditions b. effects c. subjects d. parameters C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 4. A researcher is conducting an experiment in which one group of people is exposed to an advertisement and another group is exposed to another advertisement. He is examining the effect of headline font sizes on consumers’ attitude toward the brand advertised. The participants in this experimental research are referred to as _____. a. respondents b. elements c. factorials d. subjects D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 5. Categorical variables included in the statistical analysis of experimental data as a way of statistically controlling or accounting for variance due to that variable are called _____ variables. a. independent b. dependent c. blocking d. covariate C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 6. Variables like a subject’s gender or ethnicity that are included in an experimental analysis are known as which type of variable? a. blocking variables b. covariates c. main variables d. confounds A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 7. A(n) _____ refers to one of the possible values for each independent variable in an experiment. a. experimental condition b. experimental variable c. experimental block d. experimental subject A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 8. A marketing researcher is manipulating exposing subjects to one of two price levels--$1.99 or $2.49--for a tube of lip balm and measures behavioral intentions. The two price levels are known as experimental_____ in the study. a. confounds b. conditions c. cells d. covariates B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 255 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 9. The experimental difference in means between the different levels of any single experimental variable is referred to as a(n) _____. a. interaction effect b. primary effect c. main effect d. confound C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 256 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 10. A company was interested in learning if training expenditures will enhance its salesforce productivity, so they hired a researcher to conduct an experiment in which one group of salespeople received training and the other didn’t. The average sales for salespeople who received training was significantly higher than for those who did not. This difference in means between the two groups is known as a(n) _____ effect. a. placebo b. main c. covariate d. interactive B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 256 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 11. Differences in dependent variable means due to a specific combination of independent variables are called _____ effects. a. main b. conditional c. interaction d. valid C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 257 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 12. Experimental results that show that consumers purchased more when a store had a blue color with bright lights than they did when a store was orange with bright lights but no difference when the lighting was low is an example of which type of effect? a. main b. interaction c. confound d. synergistic B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 257 OBJ: LO: 12-01 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 13. All of the following are experimental design issues EXCEPT _____. a. selection and assignment of subjects to treatments b. control over extraneous variables c. manipulation of the independent variable d. manipulation of the dependent variable D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 257 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 14. If the level of advertising expenditures is compared to the number of units sold at the end of a four-month period, the independent variable is ______ while the dependent variable is ______. a. advertising expenditure level; units sold b. customer satisfaction; advertising expenditure level c. units sold; advertising expenditure level d. none of these choices A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 257 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 15. The way an experimental variable is manipulated is referred to as an experimental _____. a. treatment b. cell c. confound d. dose A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 258 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 16. The group receiving an experimental treatment is called the _____. a. primary group b. experimental group c. control group d. experimental unit B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 258 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 17. Kim and Mary are both participating in an experiment examining the effect of adding graphic warning labels on cigarette packages to the written warning labels that are already required by law. Kim saw a package in which half of the package had a picture of diseased lungs included with the written warning label, whereas Mary only saw the written warning label without a picture on the package the researcher showed her. Kim was part of which group in the experiment? a. primary group b. covariate group c. experimental group d. control group C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 258 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 18. A group of subjects to whom no experimental treatment is administered is called a _____ group. a. control b. secondary c. blocking d. statistical A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 258 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 19. Kamal is assigned to a group in an experiment examining the effectiveness of zinc on diminishing the symptoms of a cold. He didn’t know it, but the capsule he received didn’t contain any zinc in it. In fact, it was just a sugar pill. The other group of subjects received the true zinc supplements, and researchers compared the number of days subjects felt cold symptoms. Kamal was assigned to which group in the experiment? a. primary b. experimental c. control d. blocking C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 258 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 20. Which of the following is the term used to refer to a treatment combination within an experiment? a. level b. link c. cell d. unit C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 259 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 21. A researcher is examining the impact of pictures in advertisements and whether including instructions to imagine impact subjects’ mental imagery. She manipulated three treatment levels of pictures: concrete picture, abstract picture, or no picture. Instructions to imagine were either present or not present. How many cells are there in this experiment? a. 2 b. 3 c. 5 d. 6 D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 259 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Analytic| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 22. Monica is conducting an experiment where all subjects rotate through all of the training programs she is testing. This type of experiment in which an individual subject is exposed to more than one level of an experimental treatment is called _____. a. between-subjects b. repeated measures c. redundant manipulation d. randomization B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 260 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 23. _____ are the subjects or entities whose responses to the experimental treatment are measured. a. Test units b. Focal units c. Covariates d. Independent units A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 260 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 24. Which of the following are possible test units in a business research study? a. people b. sales territories c. strategic business units d. all of these choices D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 260 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 25. Which of the following occurs if the sampling units in an experimental cell are somehow different than the units in another cell, and this difference affects the dependent variable? a. systematic or nonsampling error b. sampling error c. experimental bias d. subject bias A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 261 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 26. A psychology professor is conducting an experiment in which subjects perform memory tasks. There are four groups, each participating in different buildings on campus. During the time of the experiment one group was in a building near a dumpster that was being emptied by a big, noisy trash truck. The other groups weren’t close enough to hear the noise. Which type of error does this introduce into the research? a. systematic error b. sampling error c. testing error d. interference error A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 261 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 27. Which of the following is a way for a researcher to equally distribute the effects of extraneous variables to all conditions in an experiment? a. confounding b. split sampling c. repeated measures d. randomization D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 261 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 28. Which of the following refers to items that may affect the dependent measures but are not of primary interest in an experiment? a. nuisance variables b. random variables c. uniform variables d. control variables A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 261 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 29. Which of the following means that there is an alternative explanation beyond the experimental variables for any observed differences in the dependent variables? a. confound b. interaction c. randomization d. repeated measures A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 262 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 30. Variables that naturally exist in the environment that may have some systematic effect on the dependent variable in an experiment are referred to as _____. a. latent variables b. control variables c. extraneous variables d. third variables C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 262 OBJ: LO: 12-02 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 31. Which term refers to an experimental design element that unintentionally provides subjects with hints about the research hypothesis. a. demand characteristic b. Hawthorne effect c. testing effect d. confounding effect A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 263 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 32. Demand characteristics, such as subjects’ knowledge of the experimental hypotheses, create which type of effect? a. covariate b. maturation c. history d. demand D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 263 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 33. Which of the following is present when the person administering experimental procedures influences the subjects’ behavior or sways them to slant their answers to cooperate with him or her? a. experimenter bias b. response bias c. Type I error d. Type II error A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 264 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 34. When subjects act differently because they are aware that they are in an experiment, this is called the _____. a. history effect b. Hawthorne effect c. maturation effect d. Likert effect B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 264 OBJ: LO: 12-03 35. All of the following are ways to reduce demand characteristics EXCEPT _____. a. use an experimental disguise b. administer multiple experimental treatment levels to each subject c. use a “blind” experimental administrator d. isolate experimental subjects B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 265 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 36. Caroline is participating in an experimental study in which she is taking an herbal supplement and the researcher measures her perceived energy levels for several weeks. Although she doesn’t know it, the supplement she is given in the study does not contain any of the herb of interest in the study. However, Caroline feels as though she has more energy than before, and she attributes it to the herbal supplement. This effect due to the psychological impact that goes along with knowledge that a treatment has been administered is called a(n) _____. a. maturation effect b. false positive c. counterbalancing effect d. placebo effect D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 265 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 37. When subjects in all experimental groups are exposed to identical conditions except for the differing experimental treatments, this is called _____. a. the Hawthorne effect b. confounding c. constancy of conditions d. compounding C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 266 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 38. If a soft-drink company performs an experiment with a new type of soft drink in which experimental subjects always taste this new product first and then taste a competitor's product second, the study has an error in design termed a(n) _____. a. history effect b. maturation effect c. order of presentation effect d. guinea pig effect C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 266 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 39. When a food company tests a new product by having one group of experimental subjects taste this product first and then taste a competitor's product second, while a second group of experimental subjects tastes these two products in the reverse order, the experimental design has been _____. a. counterbalanced b. reversed c. confounded d. validated A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 266 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 40. Which of the following is critical when conducting experimental research because it allows researchers to return subjects to normal? a. manipulation check b. cohort analysis c. debriefing d. deception C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 267 OBJ: LO: 12-04 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 41. Which experimental design involves manipulating a single independent variable to observe its effect on a single dependent variable? a. primary experimental design b. basic experimental design c. factorial experimental design d. counterbalanced experimental design B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 267 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 42. An experiment is conducted in which music played in a store is manipulated to examine the impact on sales. What type of experimental design is this? a. factorial experimental design b. primary experimental design c. basic experimental design d. univariate experimental design C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 267 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 43. Which type of experimental design allows for an investigation of the interaction of two or more independent variables? a. basic experimental designs b. factorial experimental designs c. hierarchical experimental designs d. instrumental experimental designs B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 267 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 44. An experiment examining the interaction effects of the presence of police cars and the presence of speeding cameras on the number of speeding tickets issued is an example of which type of experimental design? a. basic experimental design b. legitimate experimental design c. obtuse experimental design d. factorial experimental design D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 227 OBJ: LO: 12-03 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 45. In which type of experiment does the researcher have more complete control over the research setting and extraneous variables? a. factorial b. controlled c. field d. laboratory D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 267 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 46. When an experiment is conducted on the premises of the research organization, this is an example of a _____. a. static group design b. laboratory experiment c. field experiment d. controlled store test B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 267 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 47. A device that controls the amount of time a subject is exposed to a visual image is called a _____. a. tachistoscope b. pupilometer c. focalscope d. rotoscope A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 268 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 48. A researcher is interested in the level of employees’ understanding of health benefit options. He is interested in how the amount of time spent looking at the brochure for each option influences understanding, so he’s using a device that controls the amount of time a subject is exposed to the brochure. This device is called a _____. a. pupilometer b. psychgalvanometer c. tachistoscope d. rotoscope C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 268 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 49. Research projects involving experimental manipulations that are implemented in a natural environment are called _____. a. laboratory experiments b. field experiments c. primary experiments d. secondary experiments B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 268 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 50. Which experimental research design involves repeated measures? a. within-subjects design b. between-subjects design c. squared-subjects design d. interdependent-subjects design A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 270 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 51. Karen is conducting an experiment examining how different managerial styles impact employee trainees’ productivity. Each trainee is rotated through different departments of a company and exposed to managers who execute different managerial styles. This is an example of which type of experimental design? a. between-subjects b. within-subjects c. minimal-subjects d. intra-subjects B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 270 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 52. In which experimental research design does each subject receive only one treatment combination? a. within-subjects design b. between-subjects design c. squared-subjects design d. independent-subjects design B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 270 OBJ: LO: 12-05 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 53. The question as to whether the independent variable was the sole cause of the change in the dependent variable is the basic issue in _____. a. a repeated measures study b. internal validity c. a matching study d. external validity B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 271 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 54. A validity test of an experimental manipulation to make sure that the manipulation does produce differences in the independent variable is called a _____. a. validity check b. reliability check c. reality check d. manipulation check D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 271 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 55. When subjects in an experiment in which the they were exposed to varying price levels for a product are asked how low they believe the price of the product to be so that the researcher can determine whether or not the subjects perceived “high” and “low” conditions, this is an example of a _____. a. manipulation check b. reliability assessment c. factor analysis d. surrogate manipulation A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 271 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 56. Which type of effect occurs when a change other than the experimental treatment occurs during the course of an experiment that affects the dependent variable? a. history effect b. interaction effect c. pseudo-effect d. placebo effect A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 271 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 57. When a competitor introduces a 15 percent price cut in order to blunt the effect of a test marketing study, this is an example of a _____. a. maturation effect b. testing effect c. history effect d. cohort effect C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 271 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 58. Which of the following is a special case of the history effect and refers to a change in the dependent variable that occurs because members of one experimental group experienced different historical situations than members of other experimental groups? a. cohort effect b. Hawthorne effect c. testing effect d. instrumentation effect A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 271 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 59. Which of the following is a function of time and the naturally occurring events that coincide with growth and experience? a. history effect b. testing effect c. selection effect d. maturation effect D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 272 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 60. When accountants are tested one year after a training program on a new accounting software system and perform better on the test, not because of the training program, but because they have gained one year's experience in using the software, this is an example of a _____. a. selection effect b. maturation effect c. history effect d. cohort effect B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 272 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 61. When high school students who take the ACT in their junior year perform better on that exam during their senior year because they know better how to take the exam because of what they experienced on the first exam, this is an example of a _____. a. mortality effect b. testing effect c. history effect d. instrumentation effect B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 272 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 62. Which type of effect occurs when there is a change in the wording of questions, a change in interviewers, or a change in other procedures that causes a change in the dependent variable? a. history effect b. mortality effect c. instrumentation effect d. testing effect C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 272 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 63. When different interviewers are used in a pretest from those used in the posttest and this produces different results in the study, this is an example of a(n) _____. a. history effect b. mortality effect c. instrumentation effect d. cohort effect C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 272 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 64. Which of the following is a threat to the internal validity of an experiment using a repeated measures design? a. instrumentation effect b. redundancy effect c. cohort effect d. attrition effect A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 272 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 65. When some subjects exit the experiment before it is completed and this effects the results of the study, this is an example of a _____. a. mortality effect b. history effect c. instrumentation effect d. confounding effect A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 273 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 66. Which of the following is concerned with the accuracy with which experimental results can be generalized beyond the experimental subjects? a. external validity b. internal validity c. reliability d. selective validity A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 273 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 67. When a researcher tries to say that the results of a test market in Indianapolis, Indiana will hold in a national rollout of the new product, this researcher is concerned with _____. a. internal validity b. the repeated measures effect c. constant error d. external validity D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 273 OBJ: LO: 12-06 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 68. When a Ford Motor Co. dealer in St. Louis tries to reduce his inventory of new cars by offering "two free tickets on American Airlines to anywhere American Airlines flies within the continental United States" to anyone who purchases a new car in February, this is an example of a(n) _____. a. one-shot design b. pretest-posttest control group design c. Solomon four-group design d. posttest-only control group design A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 275 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 69. Which experimental design has the following symbols?: O1 X O2 a. static group design b. after-only design c. Solomon four-group design d. one-group pretest-posttest design D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 275 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 70. Which experimental design has the following symbols: Experimental group: R O1 X O2 Control group: R O3 O4 a. one-shot design b. static group design c. posttest-only control group design d. pretest-posttest control group design D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 276 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 71. Which experimental design has the following symbols: Experimental group: R X O1 Control group: R O2 a. static group design b. Solomon four-group design c. posttest-only control group design d. one-group pretest-posttest design C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 277 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 72. Which experimental design has the following symbols: O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6 a. static group design b. after-only design c. pretest-posttest control group design d. time series design D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 278 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 73. An experimental design that uses a random process to assign subjects to treatment levels of an experimental variable is called a _____. a. main effect design b. completely randomized design c. Solomon design d. systematic design B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 278 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 74. In which experimental design is a single, categorical extraneous variable that might affect test units’ responses to the treatment identified and the effects isolated by being blocked out? a. completely randomized design b. factorial design c. randomized-block design d. interactive block design C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 280 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Knowledge 75. A researcher is interested in examining the effect of background music and lighting on sales in a restaurant, so he wants to conduct an experiment that manipulates different levels of each. Which experimental design would be best to examine the effects of these two treatments at various levels? a. completely randomized design b. randomized-block design c. interactive design d. factorial design D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 280 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application 76. A 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design has _____ factors, each of which has ______ levels. a. eight; three b. three; eight c. two; three d. three; two D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 281 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Reflective Thinking| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Comprehension 77. A 3 x 2 experimental design requires ______ combinations of subgroup cells. a. two b. five c. six d. nine C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 281 OBJ: LO: 12-07 NAT: AACSB Analytic| CB&E Model Research| Blooms Application COMPLETION 1. In an experiment, the ______ variable is manipulated and its effect is measured on the ______ variable. 2. In an experiment, the change in the ______ variable is presumed to be the cause of the results. 3. People participating in experiments are referred to as _____. 4. Blocking variables are typically _____ variables like a subject’s gender or ethnicity. 5. Experimental difference in means between the different levels of any single experimental variable is referred to as a(n) _____ effect. 6. An effect due to a specific combination of independent variables is called a(n) _____ effect. 7. In an experiment, the treatment is administered to the ______ group. 8. If there are two levels of both treatment variables in an experiment, then there will be _____ cells in the experiment. 9. If subjects in the experimental group are administered the treatment in the afternoon while the subjects in the control group participate in the experiment in the morning, the study is said to experience ______ error. 10. The random assignment of subjects and treatments to groups is called _____. 11. When the researcher unintentionally provides the subjects with hints about what he wants them to say in the study, this is an example of a(n) _____ characteristic. 12. When the experimenter’s comments influence the subjects’ behavior so that they give answers that they think the experimenter wants to hear rather than their true feelings, we say that ________ has occurred. 13. When subjects in an experiment perform differently because they realize that they are participating in an experiment, this is called the ______ effect. 14. An experimental deception that involves a false treatment is called a(n) ________ . 15. When subjects in all experimental groups are exposed to identical conditions except for the differing experimental treatments, we say that _____ has occurred. 16. When a research organization conducts a taste test in its offices located in a shopping mall, this is an example of a(n) ______ experiment. 17. When Procter & Gamble conducts a test market for a new shampoo in Kansas City and St. Louis, this is an example of a(n) ______ experiment. 18. An experiment in which each subject receives only one treatment combination is called a(n) _____ design. 19. A _____ is a validity test of an experimental manipulation. 20. A _____ effect is a nuisance effect occurring when the initial measurement or test alerts or primes subjects in a way that affects their response to the experimental treatments. 21. When subjects are randomly assigned to treatment groups to study the effects of manipulating an independent variable, this is called a(n) ______ design. 22. A(n) _____ experimental design allows for testing of the effects of two or more treatments at various levels. 23. In a factorial design, the influence of one independent variable on a dependent variable is called a(n) _____ effect. 24. _____ produce differences in the dependent variable between experimental cells based on combinations of variables. 25. A 3 x 3 experimental design incorporates _____ factors, each having _____ levels. ESSAY 1. Explain how experimental research differs from survey research. 2. Design an experiment that tests the effect of something a manager in your disciple can manipulate. Identify the independent and dependent variables and describe how you would conduct the experiment and control for other factors. 3. Explain how systematic or nonsampling error occurs in experiments and discuss ways to minimize it. 4. Discuss what is meant by demand characteristics and why they are a concern for researchers. Discuss four ways of reducing demand characteristics. 5. Explain the advantages of a between-subjects experimental design over a within-subjects design. 6. Compare and contrast internal validity and external validity and discuss which one is most important in experimental research. 7. Compare and contrast completely randomized designs and randomized-block designs.

Preview 3 out of 27  pages

all_academic

Also available in bundle (1)

Chapters 1-25 for Business Research Methods | 9th Edition William G. Zikmund/Barry J. Babin/Jon C. Carr/Mitch Griffin

$ 236.75   $ 45.99

1x sold

25 items
  • 1. Exam - Chapter 25—communicating research results: report generation, oral presentation, an...
  • 2. Exam - Chapter 24—multivariate statistical analysis. all answers
  • 3. Exam - Chapter 23—bivariate statistical analysis: measures of association. all answers
  • 4. Exam - Chapter 22—bivariate statistical analysis: differences between two variables. all a...
  • 5. Exam - Chapter 21—univariate statistical analysis. all answers
  • Show more

The benefits of buying summaries with Stuvia:

Guaranteed quality through customer reviews

Guaranteed quality through customer reviews

Stuvia customers have reviewed more than 300,000 summaries. This how you know that you are buying the best documents.

Quick and easy check-out

Quick and easy check-out

You can quickly pay through credit card or Stuvia-credit for the summaries. There is no membership needed.

Focus on what matters

Focus on what matters

Your fellow students write the study notes themselves, which is why the documents are always reliable and up-to-date. This ensures you quickly get to the core!

$ 9.49
  • (0)
  Add to cart