Chapter 07—HOW CELLS RELEASE CHEMICAL ENERGY. Questions and Answers - $8.49   Add to cart

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Chapter 07—HOW CELLS RELEASE CHEMICAL ENERGY. Questions and Answers

1. Which pathway generates the most ATP? a. fermentation b. glycolysis c. photosynthesis d. Kreb’s cycle e. electron transport chain : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7. 1 How do cells access the chemical energy in sugars? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 2. The energy released as ____ are broken drives ATP synthesis. a. phosphate groups b. the bonds of a sugar’s carbon backbone c. hydrogen bonds of water d. ADP molecules e. cofactors : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.1 How do cells access the chemical energy in sugars? KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember NOTES: New 3. The ultimate source of energy for living things is: a. the Krebs cycle b. fossil fuels c. the sun d. oxygen e. aerobic respiration : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.1 How do cells access the chemical energy in sugars? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 4. What occurs when molecules are broken apart in respiration? a. The heat produced is used to drive biological reactions. b. The oxygen in the compounds that are broken apart is used as an energy source. c. The energy released is used in ATP synthesis. d. ATP is converted into ADP. e. ADP is released as a waste product. : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.1 How do cells access the chemical energy in sugars? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 5. Aerobes use ____ as the final electron acceptor in electron transport phosphorylation. a. hydrogen b. carbon c. oxygen d. H2O e. NAD : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.1 How do cells access the chemical energy in sugars? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 6. What is the correct operational sequence of the three processes listed below? I. glycolysis II. electron transfer III. Krebs a. I → II → III b. II → I → III c. III → I → II d. II → III → I e. I → III → II : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.1 How do cells access the chemical energy in sugars? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 7. In order to use the energy stored in sugars, cells must first transfer it to ____ that is synthesized during aerobic respiration. a. carbon b. oxygen c. ATP d. NAD e. carbon dioxide : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.1 How do cells access the chemical energy in sugars? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 8. Before photosynthesis evolved, _____ was a very small component of Earth’s early atmosphere. a. carbon dioxide b. nitrogen c. water d. oxygen e. argon : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.2 How did energy releasing pathways evolve? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 9. The first aerobic organisms could live in the presence of oxygen without harm because they evolved ____. a. chloroplasts b. pigments c. hexokinase d. mitochondria e. antioxidants : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.2 How did energy releasing pathways evolve? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 10. How many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose during glycolysis? a. 1 b. 2 c. 4 d. 36 e. 38 : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 11. Substrate level phosphorylation ____. a. involves the direct transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate b. requires the presence of oxygen c. requires the presence of NADH d. produces most of the ATPs during aerobic respiration e. is not part of fermentation pathways : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 12. In the breakdown of glucose, the compound formed after two phosphorylation reactions is split into two three−carbon compounds. The three−carbon compound is named ____. a. phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL) b. pyruvate c. acetyl CoA d. lactate e. acetaldehyde : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 13. Pyruvate can be regarded as the end product of ____. a. glycolysis b. acetyl CoA formation c. fermentation d. the Krebs cycle e. electron transport chain : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 14. What must occur before a glucose molecule can be broken down to release energy? a. One ATP molecule must phosphorylate the six carbon sugar. b. Two ATP molecules must phosphorylate the six carbon sugar. c. Three ATP molecules must phosphorylate the six carbon sugar. d. One ATP molecule must be taken away from glucose. e. Two ATP molecules must be taken away from glucose. : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 15. What is a requirement for glycolysis to proceed? a. Glucose must enter the mitochondria. b. There must be an input of energy from ATP. c. Oxygen must be available. d. Heat must be supplied. e. Carbon dioxide must be available. : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 16. Glycolysis depends on a continuous supply of: a. oxygen b. pyruvate c. NAD d. NADH e. H2O : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 17. The end product(s) of glycolysis is(are): a. acetyl CoA b. carbon dioxide c. pyruvate d. glucose e. glucose and carbon dioxide : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 18. During which phase(s) of aerobic respiration is ATP produced directly by substrate-level phosphorylation? a. glycolysis only b. Krebs cycle only c. acetyl CoA formation only d. the Krebs cycle and glycolysis e. glycolysis, acetyl CoA formation, and Krebs cycle : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? Section 7.5 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 19. The Krebs cycle takes place in the ____. a. ribosomes b. cytoplasm c. nucleus d. mitochondria e. chloroplasts : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 20. How many of glucose's carbons are converted to CO2 at the end of aerobic respiration? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 6 : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 21. The first stable intermediate produced in the Krebs cycle is a. pyruvate b. acetyl CoA c. fructose bisphosphate d. oxaloacetate e. citrate : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 22. The last intermediate produced in the Krebs cycle is ____. a. pyruvate b. acetyl CoA c. fructose bisphosphate d. oxaloacetate e. citrate : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 23. Which agent is capable of being reduced during both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle? a. NAD b. FAD c. ADP d. NADH e. NADP : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 24. Which process is a transition from glycolysis to the Krebs cycle? a. acetyl CoA formation b. conversion of PGAL to PGA c. regeneration of reduced NAD d. oxidative phosphorylation e. substrate-level phosphorylation : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 25. In the accompanying figure, which letter(s) corresponds to the location where the Krebs cycle takes place? a. A only b. B only c. C only d. A and B e. B and C : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 26. During electron transfer phosphorylation, which ions accumulate in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria? a. calcium b. hydrogen c. oxygen d. phosphorus e. sodium : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.5 What happens during the third stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 27. The ultimate electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is ____. a. NAD b. CO2 c. ADP d. NADP e. O2 : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.5 What happens during the third stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 28. When O2 accepts electrons in aerobic respiration, it is converted to ____. a. O3 b. CO2 c. OH d. H2O e. CO : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.5 What happens during the third stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 29. NADH transfers electrons to oxygen through which process? a. glycolysis b. acetyl CoA formation c. the Krebs cycle d. electron transfer phosphorylation e. substrate-level phosphorylation : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.5 What happens during the third stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 30. What do NADH and FADH2 deliver to electron transfer chains? a. electrons b. ATP c. oxygen d. electrons and hydrogen ions e. phosphate : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.5 What happens during the third stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 31. Electron flow through the transport chains causes hydrogen ions to be pumped from: a. the matrix to the intermembrane space b. the cytoplasm to the intermembrane space c. the intracellular fluid to the cytoplasm d. cytoplasm to the mitochondria e. the intermembrane space to the matrix : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.5 What happens during the third stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 32. Yeast fermentation produces ____. a. CO2 b. ethanol c. lactate d. ethanol and CO2 e. ethanol and lactate : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.6 What is fermentation? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 33. What do the final steps of fermentation regenerate? a. glucose b. ADP c. NAD d. NADH e. electrons : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.6 What is fermentation? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 34. In alcoholic fermentation, the electrons and hydrogen are transferred from NADH to acetaldehyde, forming: a. pyruvate b. carbon dioxide c. ethanol only d. NAD and ethanol e. lactate : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.6 What is fermentation? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 35. What gives red muscle fibers their characteristic color? a. free oxygen b. carbon dioxide c. lactate d. pyruvate e. myoglobin : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.6 What is fermentation? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 36. Under anaerobic conditions, muscle cells produce ____. a. ethyl alcohol b. acetaldehyde c. pyruvate d. lactate e. citrate : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.6 What is fermentation? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 37. ____ muscle fibers are used for prolonged activity and have ____ mitochondria. a. Red; few b. Red; many c. White; few d. White; many e. Red and white; few : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.6 What is fermentation? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember Selecting the Exception 38. Four of the five s listed below are compounds associated with anaerobic pathways. Select the exception. a. pyruvate b. lactic acid c. ethanol d. oxaloacetate e. phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL) : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.6 What is fermentation? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception 39. What is the main purpose of reduction of pyruvate to lactate during fermentation? a. Produce more ATP. b. Produce CO2. c. Convert NADH to NAD . d. Produce both ATP and CO2. e. Produce ATP and convert NADH to NAD . : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 7.6 What is fermentation? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 40. Glucose is converted into glycogen primarily in the ____. a. brain b. blood c. pancreas d. spleen e. liver 41. When fats are broken down as energy sources, their components enter ____. a. glycolysis b. the Krebs cycle c. electron transport d. glycolysis and the Krebs cycle e. glycolysis and electron transport 42. When proteins are used as energy sources, their breakdown subunits usually enter ____. a. glycolysis b. electron transfer chain c. the Krebs cycle d. alcoholic fermentation e. lactate fermentation 43. When blood glucose levels decrease (as between meals), what reserves are tapped first? a. glycogen b. fats c. proteins d. steroids e. amino acids 44. What forms during aerobic respiration that is detoxified by antioxidant molecules in the cell’s cytoplasm? a. free electrons b. alcohol c. reduced coenzymes d. free radicals e. carbon dioxide 45. The glycolysis reactions are represented by the letter ____. 46. The Krebs cycle is represented by the letter ____. 47. The net ATP yield (at letter "D") from the metabolism of one glucose molecule is a. 32 b. 4 c. 36 d. 64 e. 28 48. Electron transfer phosphorylation is represented by the letter ____. 49. In order to use the energy stored in sugars, what must the cells must first transfer it to? How does the energy transfer occur? 50. Carbon dioxide, water, sugar, and oxygen cycle through the world via _______________ (energy capture) and _______________ (energy release). 51. What are the differences between red and white muscle fibers? 52. During aerobic respiration, glucose becomes _______________ (as it gives up electrons) and coenzymes become _______________ (as they accept electrons). 53. How are photosynthesis and aerobic respiration related? 54. How did oxygen gas buildup in air following the evolution of photosynthesis? 55. Follow a glucose molecule through aerobic respiration until all the energy that can be extracted is extracted. 56. What is produced during the first and second stages of aerobic respiration that are needed for the final stage (electron transfer phosphorylation)? 57. Why is the hydrogen ion gradient of the electron transfer chain important for energy production? 58. Why are fats a richer source of energy than carbohydrates? 59. What can cause a buildup of free radicals that damage the cell —and ultimately, the individual? Use the five compounds listed below to the questions. a. ethanol b. pyruvate c. lactate d. citrate e. acetaldehyde REFERENCES: Chapter 7 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Classification Questions 60. This compound is utilized in alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation. : b POINTS: 1 61. This compound is the most likely end-product of a human runner experiencing an oxygen debt. : c POINTS: 1 62. This compound is an intermediate product of alcoholic fermentation, but not lactate fermentation. : e POINTS: 1 63. This compound is the end product of glycolysis. : b POINTS: 1 64. This compound is an end-product of anaerobic respiration in exercising muscle. : c POINTS: 1 Choose the from the three terms related to the mechanisms by which organisms break down sugars to make ATP. a. fermentation b. aerobic respiration REFERENCES: Section 7.1 How do cells access the chemical energy in sugars? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 65. does not require oxygen : a POINTS: 1 66. starts and ends in the cytoplasm : a POINTS: 1 67. ends in the mitochondria : b POINTS: 1 68. may sustain many single-celled species : a POINTS: 1 69. produces 36 ATP molecules : b POINTS: 1 70. produces 2 ATP molecules : a POINTS: 1 Match the following ATP synthesis processes with their correct location: a. cytoplasm b. mitochondria matrix c. mitochondria intermembrane space d. mitochondria inner membrane REFERENCES: Section 7.3 What is glycolysis? Section 7.4 What happens during the second stage of aerobic respiration? Section 7.5 What happens during the third stage of aerobic respiration? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 71. glucose enters this space through a glucose transporter : a POINTS: 1 72. fermentation : a POINTS: 1 73. Krebs cycle : b POINTS: 1 74. glycolysis : a POINTS: 1 75. ATP synthases : d POINTS: 1 76. Electron flow causes the hydrogen ions to be pumped from the matrix to this place : c POINTS:

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