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Chapter 05—GROUND RULES OF METABOLISM. Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice 1. Essentially, the first law of thermodynamics says that: a. one form of energy cannot be converted into another b. entropy is increasing in the universe c. energy can be neither created nor destroyed d. energy cannot be converted into matter or matter into energy e. energy is the capacity to do work ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.1 What is energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.1.1 - Explain the first law of thermodynamics. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 2. The second law of thermodynamics holds that: a. matter can neither be created nor destroyed b. energy can neither be created nor destroyed c. whenever energy is transformed to another form, some is dispersed d. entropy decreases with time e. energy is the capacity to do work ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.1 What is energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.1.2 - How is the concept of entropy related to the second law of thermodynamics? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 3. The second law of thermodynamics states that: a. energy can be transformed into matter and, because of this, we can get something for nothing b. energy can only be destroyed during nuclear reactions, such as those that occur inside the sun c. if energy is gained by one region of the universe, another place in the universe also must gain energy in order to maintain the balance of nature d. energy tends to become increasingly more disorganized e. energy is the capacity to do work ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.1 What is energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.1.2 - How is the concept of entropy related to the second law of thermodynamics? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified Selecting the Exception 4. Four of the five answers listed below apply to conditions where energy is released. Select the exception. a. endergonic reaction b. respiration c. entropy d. second law of thermodynamics e. exergonic reaction ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.1 What is energy? Section 5.2 How do cells use energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.1.2 - How is the concept of entropy related to the second law of thermodynamics? BCA.SES.5.2.3 - Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception 5. Four of the five answers listed below affect the rate of enzymatic reactions. Select the exception. a. pH b. temperature c. concentrations d. hormones e. buildup of product ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.1 - Briefly explain how enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception 6. Four of the five statements about enzymes are correct. Select the exception. a. Enzymes control the speed of a reaction. b. Enzymes change shapes to facilitate certain reactions. c. Enzymes may place physical stress on the bonds of the substrate. d. Enzymes may require cofactors. e. Enzymes are not limited by environmental factors. ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3 - Describe the factors that affect the functioning of enzymes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 7. Four of the five answers listed below are metabolic processes. Select the exception. a. protein synthesis b. cell division c. digestion d. phosphorylation e. oxidation/reduction ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4 - Describe how metabolic pathways are regulated. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception 8. Four of the five answers listed below are found in a common energy-carrying molecule. Select the exception. a. phosphate b. adenine c. deoxyribose d. hydrogen e. ribose ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.5 How do cofactors work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.5 - Explain the role that cofactors play in metabolic reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember OTHER: Selecting the Exception 9. Both endergonic and exergonic reactions require an input of ____ to begin. a. organic molecules b. initiation energy c. activation energy d. water e. oxygen ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.2 How do cells use energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.2.3 - Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 10. Endergonic reactions convert molecules with ____ free energy to molecules with ____ free energy, so they require a net energy input in order to proceed. a. higher; lower b. lower; higher c. zero; some d. some; zero e. chemical bond; no chemical bond ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.2 How do cells use energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.2.3 - Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 11. The products of exergonic pathways are usually: a. lower in energy b. higher in energy c. larger and higher in energy d. smaller and higher in energy e. smaller and lower in energy ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.2 How do cells use energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.2.3 - Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 12. Which reaction is endergonic? a. protein synthesis b. digestion c. fire d. respiration e. movement ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.2 How do cells use energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.2.3 - Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified Figure 5.12 Each enzyme functions best within a characteristic range of conditions. 13. Refer to the accompanying figure. Which statement best describes the functioning of E. coli polymerase and T. aquaticus polymerase? a. E. coli polymerase functions at higher temperatures than T. aquaticus polymerase. b. E. coli polymerase activity is highest at normal body temperature (37 degrees). c. T. aquaticus polymerase denatures at temperatures above 60 degrees. d. T. aquaticus polymerase activity is highest at lower than normal body temperature (37 degrees). e. Both E. coli polymerase is best suited to work in environments such as hot springs (70 degrees). ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.4 - How do temperature and salt concentration affect enzyme functioning? KEYWORDS: Analyze | Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 14. Refer to the accompanying figure. In which condition does trypsin function best? a. high pH, such as in the intestine b. low pH, such as in the intestine c. high pH, such as in the stomach d. low pH, such as in the stomach e. neutral pH, such as in most interstitial fluid. ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.3 - With an example, describe how pH affects the functioning of enzymes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 15. Which of these may show enzymatic activity? a. lipids b. proteins c. DNA d. lipids and proteins e. proteins and carbohydrates ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3 - Describe the factors that affect the functioning of enzymes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 16. During enzyme-catalyzed reactions, substrate is a synonym for: a. end product b. byproduct c. enzyme d. reactant e. cofactor ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.1 - Briefly explain how enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 17. Enzymes increase the rate of a given reaction by lowering what kind of energy? a. combination b. activation c. thermal d. electrical e. solar ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.2 - Explain four ways by which enzymes lower activation energy. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 18. Although it is too simple an explanation, the concept of a key fitting into a lock is descriptive of the: a. inhibition of enzymes by small molecules b. fit of coenzymes to enzymes c. matching of enzyme with substrate d. regeneration of ATP from ADP e. stepwise cascade of electrons in the oxidation-reduction reactions ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3 - Describe the factors that affect the functioning of enzymes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 19. What is the process in which an enzyme makes a reaction run much faster than it would on its own? a. redox reaction b. allosteric regulation c. induced fit d. catalysis e. phosphorylation ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.1 - Briefly explain how enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 20. Adding heat boosts free energy. The greater the free energy of reactants, the closer they are to ____. a. feedback inhibition b. an endergonic reaction c. an induced fit with an enzyme d. activation energy e. cofactor interaction ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.2 - Explain four ways by which enzymes lower activation energy. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 21. Activation energy is the energy required to bring reactant bonds to: a. an enzyme b. their strongest conformation c. a reducing agent d. their breaking point e. a high energy state ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.2 - Explain four ways by which enzymes lower activation energy. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 22. How does a high pH affect an enzyme’s activity? a. It deceases it. b. It increases it. c. It changes the shape of all enzymes. d. It does not affect the enzyme but it lowers the availability of substrate. e. It varies with different enzymes; some work well at a high pH, others do not. ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.3 How do enzymes work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.3.3 - With an example, describe how pH affects the functioning of enzymes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 23. In metabolic pathways that are regulated by feedback inhibition, the _____ inhibits the activity of the _____. a. product; first enzyme b. first enzyme; product c. second enzyme; first enzyme d. last enzyme; first enzyme e. reactant; product ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.2 - Describe the mechanisms that regulate enzyme activity. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 24. Allosteric inhibition is generally a result of: a. excess substrates b. binding regulatory molecules at a site other than the active site c. a change in the temperature of the system d. binding of the regulatory molecule at the active site e. pH inhibition ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.2 - Describe the mechanisms that regulate enzyme activity. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 25. An allosteric enzyme: a. has an active site where substrate molecules bind and another site that binds with regulatory molecules b. is an important energy-carrying nucleotide c. carries out either oxidation reactions or reduction reactions, but not both d. raises the activation energy of the chemical reaction it catalyzes e. only participates in feedback inhibition pathways ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.2 - Describe the mechanisms that regulate enzyme activity. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 26. A molecule that gives up an electron becomes: a. ionized only b. oxidized only c. reduced only d. both ionized and oxidized e. both ionized and reduced ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.4 - What is an electron transfer chain? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 27. The removal of electrons from a compound is known as: a. dehydration b. oxidation c. reduction d. phosphorylation e. a nonreversible chemical reaction ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.4 - What is an electron transfer chain? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 28. A(n) _____ is an organized series of reaction steps in which membrane-bound arrays of enzymes and other molecules give up and accept electrons in turn. a. cyclic metabolic pathway b. endergonic reaction c. electron transfer chain d. concentration gradient e. passive transport ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.4 - What is an electron transfer chain? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 29. In a cyclic metabolic pathway, the ____. a. product inhibits the first enzyme b. last step regenerates an enzyme for the first step c. product inhibits the last enzyme d. last step may regenerate a reactant for the first step e. regulatory molecules bind to regions other than the active site ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.1 - What is a metabolic pathway? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 30. A regulatory substance binds an enzyme outside of the active site and changes its shape so that it enhances the enzyme’s activity. What does this illustrate? a. allosteric regulation b. feedback inhibition c. redox reaction d. enhancing activation energy e. an active site, bound by substrate ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.4 What is a metabolic pathway? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.2 - Describe the mechanisms that regulate enzyme activity. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 31. Which substance would be unlikely to function as a coenzyme? a. a water-soluble vitamin b. an iron ion c. glucose d. NAD e. a magnesium ion ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.5 How do cofactors work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.5.1 - What are cofactors and how do they help enzymes function better? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 32. When ATP releases its energy, it forms: a. AMP only b. ADP only c. Pi only d. both AMP and Pi e. both ADP and Pi ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.5 How do cofactors work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.5.4 - How do cells derive energy from ATP? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 33. When NAD combines with hydrogen and an electron, the NAD becomes: a. reduced b. oxidized c. phosphorylated d. denatured e. inactivated ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.5 How do cofactors work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.4.3 - Explain how cells harvest the energy of organic bonds in redox reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 34. ATP acts as what type of agent in almost all metabolic pathways? a. transfer b. feedback c. catalytic d. allosteric e. enzymatic ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.5 How do cofactors work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.5.5 - Explain how cells replenish their stock of ATP through the ATP/ADP cycle. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 35. ATP contains: a. adenine b. cytosine c. uracil d. thymine e. guanine ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.5 How do cofactors work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.5.4 - How do cells derive energy from ATP? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 36. The rate of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane will be lowest when ____. a. molecules are small b. there is a concentration gradient c. there is a difference in charge d. there is high pressure e. temperatures are low ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.1 - State five factors that affect diffusion across membranes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 37. Pressure that a fluid exerts against a structure that contains it is called: a. hypertonic b. pressure gradient c. osmosis d. turgor e. isotonic ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.3 - Define turgor and osmotic pressure. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 38. A single-celled freshwater organism, such as a protistan, is transferred to salt water. What is likely to happen? a. The cell will bursts b. Salt will be pumped out of the cell. c. The cell will shrink. d. Enzymes will flow out of the cell. e. Water will move into the cell. ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.1 - State five factors that affect diffusion across membranes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 39. Which combination of conditions would increase the rate of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane the most? I. steeper concentration gradients II. higher temperatures III. larger molecules a. I only b. II only c. I and II d. II and III e. I, II, and III ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.1 - State five factors that affect diffusion across membranes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 40. Diffusion of nonpolar molecules would not be affected by: a. molecule size b. steepness of the concentration gradient c. temperature d. charge e. steepness of the pressure gradient ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.1 - State five factors that affect diffusion across membranes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 41. Which statement is true? a. A cell placed in an isotonic solution will swell. b. A cell placed in a hypotonic solution will swell. c. A cell placed in a hypotonic solution will shrink. d. A cell placed in a hypertonic solution will remain the same size. e. A cell placed in a hypertonic solution will swell. ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.3 - Define turgor and osmotic pressure. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 42. Wilting of a plant occurs: a. if the plant cell walls weaken b. when osomotic pressure is reached c. if there is turgor d. when soil water becomes hypotonic e. when soil water becomes hypertonic ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.3 - Define turgor and osmotic pressure. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply Exhibit 5.19 pictures red blood cells immersed in fluids of different tonicity. Refer to this exhibit to answer the following three questions. 43. The red blood cells in micrograph A are immersed in a(n) _____ solution. a. hypotonic b. isotonic c. hypertonic d. osmotic e. turgor ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.2 - Explain how tonicity determines the direction of osmosis in different types of solutions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: Modified 44. The red blood cells in micrograph B are immersed in a(n) _____ solution. a. hypotonic b. isotonic c. hypertonic d. osmotic e. turgor ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6.2 - Explain how tonicity determines the direction of osmosis in different types of solutions. ACCREDITING STANDARDS: BCA.SES.5.6.2 - Explain how tonicity determines the direction of osmosis in different types of solutions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply 45. Which movement is a passive process? a. sodium-potassium pump b. endocytosis c. exocytosis d. diffusion e. transport proteins and ATP ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.7 How do ions and charged molecules cross cell membranes? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.7.2 - Describe how passive transport is achieved in a cell. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 46. Which molecule(s) need a transport protein to cross the cell membrane? a. water b. carbon dioxide c. glucose d. oxygen e. carbon dioxide and water ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.7 How do ions and charged molecules cross cell membranes? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.7.1 - With an example, explain how transport proteins selectively move molecules across membranes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 47. What prevents a glucose molecule from moving back through a glucose transporter and leaving the cell? a. phosphorylation b. charge c. closed transporters d. gated transporters e. concentration gradient ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.7 How do ions and charged molecules cross cell membranes? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.7.1 - With an example, explain how transport proteins selectively move molecules across membranes. KEYWORDS: Blooms: Remember NOTES: New 48. A glucose transporter changes shape when it binds to a molecule of glucose. The shape change moves glucose down its concentration gradient to the opposite side of the membrane, where it detaches from the transport protein. What does this illustrate? a. facilitated diffusion b. passive diffusion c. active transport d. energy fueled pump e. open channel transport ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.7 How do ions and charged molecules cross cell membranes? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.7.3 - Explain the mechanism of facilitated diffusion. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 49. What is occurring when a transport protein uses energy to pump a solute against its gradient across a cell membrane? a. osmosis b. passive diffusion c. facilitated diffusion d. turgor e. active transport ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.7 How do ions and charged molecules cross cell membranes? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.7.4 - Why does active transport require energy? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 50. Movement of a molecule against a concentration gradient occurs in: a. simple diffusion b. facilitated diffusion c. osmosis d. active transport e. passive transport ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.7 How do ions and charged molecules cross cell membranes? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.7.4 - Why does active transport require energy? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 51. What is a passive process that requires a protein for movement of a solute across a membrane? a. active transport b. endocytosis c. bulk flow d. facilitated diffusion e. osmosis ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.7 How do ions and charged molecules cross cell membranes? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.7.3 - Explain the mechanism of facilitated diffusion. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 52. White blood cells use ____ to get rid of foreign particles in the blood. a. simple diffusion b. bulk flow c. osmosis d. phagocytosis e. facilitated diffusion ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.8 How do large particles and bulk substances move across cell membranes? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.8.4 - Describe the mechanism of phagocytosis. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember Figure 5.29 53. Which processes in the accompanying figure involve receptor mediated transport? a. A only b. B only c. C only d. A and B e. B and C ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.8 How do large particles and bulk substances move across the cell membrane? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.8.3 - Differentiate between bulk-phase endocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New Completion 54. The energy in chemical bonds is a type of ___________________ energy. ANSWER: potential POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.1 What is energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.1.2 - How is the concept of entropy related to the second law of thermodynamics? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 55. An alcohol-induced disease characterized by inflammation and destruction of liver tissue is called ___________________. ANSWER: alcoholic hepatitis POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.9 Application: A toast to alcohol dehydrogenase LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.9.2 - Discuss the harmful consequences of excessive alcohol consumption. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 56. Long-term, heavy drinking can lead to ___________________, or scarring of the liver. ANSWER: cirrhosis POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.9 Application: A toast to alcohol dehydrogenase LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.9.2 - Discuss the harmful consequences of excessive alcohol consumption. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember Matching Choose the one most appropriate answer for each. a. reactants have greater free energy than products b. a phosphate group is attached by a high-energy bond c. an excess of end-product molecules alters the shape of the first enzyme in the pathway and shuts off that metabolic pathway d. the part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate e. binding of a regulatory molecule changes the shape of the enzyme f. lowers the activation energy of a reaction g. universal energy currency h. a permanent loss of protein structure REFERENCES: Chapter 5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.1 - Describe the flow of energy in the universe. BCA.SES.5.2 - Describe how cells store and release energy in chemical reactions. BCA.SES.5.3 - Describe the factors that affect the functioning of enzymes. BCA.SES.5.4 - Describe how metabolic pathways are regulated. BCA.SES.5.5 - Explain the role that cofactors play in metabolic reactions. BCA.SES.5.6 - Explain how water molecules diffuse through cell membranes. BCA.SES.5.7 - How do transport proteins assist the movement of substances across cell membranes? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 57. active site ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 58. allosteric enzyme ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 59. adenosine triphosphate ANSWER: g POINTS: 1 60. catalyst ANSWER: f POINTS: 1 61. denaturation ANSWER: h POINTS: 1 62. exergonic ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 63. feedback inhibition ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 64. phosphorylation ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 The question(s) ask about membrane permeability. Answer them in reference to the four processes below: a. simple diffusion b. facilitated diffusion c. osmotic pressure d. active transport e. turgor f. osmosis REFERENCES: Section 5.6 What influences the movement of ions and molecules? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.6 - Explain how water molecules diffuse through cell membranes. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember OTHER: Classification Questions NOTES: New 65. Pressure that a fluid exerts against a structure that contains it ANSWER: e POINTS: 1 66. Phenomenon that explains the movement of any kind of molecule from areas of higher concentration to ones of lower concentration ANSWER: a POINTS: 1 67. The process whereby a protein assists in passive transport ANSWER: b POINTS: 1 68. The process that explains the movement of molecules against a concentration gradient ANSWER: d POINTS: 1 69. The process in which water stops diffusing into the cytoplasm of a plant cell when enough pressure builds up inside it ANSWER: c POINTS: 1 70. The process that specifically moves water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane ANSWER: f POINTS: 1 Subjective Short Answer 71. Figure 5.8 Cells store and retrieve energy in the chemical bonds of organic molecules. Answer the following question(s) related to the accompanying figure. A: What is the input for endergonic reactions? B: Provide examples of organic compounds that are made by endergonic reactions. C: Complete the sentence. D: What is the input for exergonic reactions? E: Provide examples of organic compounds that are made by endergonic reactions. F: Complete the sentence. ANSWER: A: small molecules B: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins C: store energy in the bonds of organic compounds. D: organic compounds E: carbon dioxide and water F: retrieve energy stored in the bonds of organic compounds. POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 5.2 How do cells use energy? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.5.2 - Describe how cells store and release energy in chemical reactions. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 72. Which letter in the accompanying figure corresponds to each of the following? 1. ____ activation energy without enzyme 2. ____ activation energy with enzyme 3. ____ substrate 4. ____ product 73. Figure 5.15 Answer the following question(s) related to the accompanying figure. a. What type of regulatory control is occurring? b. Describe how the regulatory control works. c. Would the metabolic reaction speed up or slow down if more product was present? 74. Figure 5.13 Metabolic pathways. Answer the following question(s) related to the accompanying figure. a. Which two types of metabolic pathways are illustrated? b. In the metabolic pathway on the right, there are two possible outcomes, what are they? c. What will happen in the metabolic pathway on the right if a high concentration of products are present? Explain. In the diagram above, side A has a 3 percent sucrose solution and side B has a 10 percent sucrose solution. The membrane separating the sides is permeable to water but impermeable to sucrose. 75. Side A is ____ to side B. a. hypertonic b. hypotonic c. isotonic d. either isotonic or hypertonic e. either isotonic or hypotonic 76. Which statement best describes the movement of water in this system? a. Water moves in both directions, but net movement is from A to B. b. Water only moves from A to B. c. Water moves in both directions, but net movement is from B to A. d. Water only moves from B to A. e. There is no net movement of water. 77. Which statement best describes the movement of sucrose in this system? a. Sucrose moves in both directions, but net movement is from A to B. b. Sucrose only moves from A to B. c. Sucrose moves in both directions, but net movement is from B to A. d. Sucrose only moves from B to A. e. There is no net movement of sucrose. Figure 5.29 78. Label the three vesicle movements in Figure 5.29. A: ____ B: ____ C: ____ Essay 79. Cells remain organized for long periods of time and new, organized cells form. Why does this not go against the Second Law of Thermodynamics? 80. How does temperature affect rate of an enzymatic reaction? Why are severe fevers dangerous? 81. How does an electron transport chain work in cells as a controlled energy release? 82. Explain the active transport involved in sodium-potassium pumps. 83. How does a vesicle form from the cell membrane? 84. As long as a cell is alive, it replaces patches of its plasma membrane and add new membrane proteins. How does this occur?

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Avoid resits and achieve higher grades with the best study guides, textbook notes, and class notes written by your fellow students.

Avoid resits

With the study guides and notes written by fellow students, you are guaranteed to be properly prepared for your exams. Over 350,000 specific notes are at your disposal. Your fellow students know exactly where the pitfalls lie and what the key elements will be to your success in that module. With their assistance, you can become well prepared and can avoid having to retake exams.

Get better grades

Thanks to the study guides written by fellow students specifically for your courses, you will never miss a trick when it comes to your exams. No generic book summaries, but the specific content you need to ace your exams.

Earn while you study

Have you written lots of study guides or notes? Earn hundreds of dollars each month by selling your written material to your fellow students. Last year students earned over $500,000 from selling their work to other students.

$ 8.49
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