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Chapter 03—MOLECULES OF LIFE. Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice 1. How many vacancies does carbon have? a. two b. three c. four d. five e. six : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.2 - Why do carbon atoms possess the ability to form a variety of organic compounds? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 2. An −OH group is a(n) ____ group. a. carboxyl b. hydroxyl c. amine d. methyl e. carbonyl : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.4 - What are functional groups? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 3. An −NH2 group is a(n) ____ group. a. carboxyl b. hydroxyl c. amine d. methyl e. carbonyl : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.4 - What are functional groups? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 4. A −COOH group is a(n) ____ group. a. carboxyl b. hydroxyl c. amine d. methyl e. carbonyl : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.4 - What are functional groups? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 5. The activities by which cells acquire and process energy are collectively called: a. organic chemistry b. biochemistry c. condensation d. hydrolysis e. metabolism : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.6 - What are metabolic reactions? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 6. The formation of large molecules from small subunits is known as what kind of reaction? a. oxidation b. reduction c. condensation d. hydrolysis e. decarboxylation : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.7 - Differentiate between condensation and hydrolysis. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 7. The breakdown of large molecules by the enzymatic addition of water is an example of what kind of reaction? a. oxidation b. reduction c. condensation d. hydrolysis e. decarboxylation : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.7 - Differentiate between condensation and hydrolysis. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 8. What is a "building block" of carbohydrates? a. glycerol b. nucleotide c. amino acid d. fatty acid e. monosaccharide : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.1 - Describe the structure and function of monosaccharides. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 9. Monosaccharides have a carbon to hydrogen to oxygen ratio of a. 1:1:1. b. 1:1:2. c. 2:1:1. d. 1:2:1. e. 1:2:2 : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.1 - Describe the structure and function of monosaccharides. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 10. Which molecule(s) in the accompanying figure would be indigestible by humans? a. A only b. B only c. C only d. B and C e. A and B : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2 - Describe the structure and function of the different types of carbohydrates. KEYWORDS: Bloom's Apply NOTES: Modified 11. Which molecule(s) in the accompanying figure is/are found in plants? a. A only b. B only c. C only d. A and B e. A and C : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2 - Describe the structure and function of the different types of carbohydrates. KEYWORDS: Bloom's Apply NOTES: New 12. Sucrose is composed of ____. a. two molecules of fructose. b. two molecules of glucose. c. a molecule of fructose and a molecule of glucose. d. a molecule of fructose and a molecule of galactose. e. a molecule of glucose and a molecule of galactose. : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.3 - What are complex carbohydrates? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 13. The combination of glucose and galactose forms ____, which is found in milk. a. fructose b. maltose c. lactose d. sucrose e. mannose : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.3 - What are complex carbohydrates? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 14. Plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of: a. starch b. glycogen c. glucose d. cellulose e. fats : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.5 - Describe the structure and function of starch. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 15. Chitin strengthens the structure of some: a. animals only b. plants only c. fungi only d. animals and fungi e. plants and fungi : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.7 - Explain how the structure of chitin contributes to its functional properties. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 16. Triglycerides contain: a. fatty acids only b. phosphate only c. glycerol only d. fatty acids and phosphate e. glycerol and fatty acids : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.3 - What are triglycerides? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 17. Most vegetable oils are: a. liquid at room temperature and saturated b. unsaturated and solid at room temperature c. found only in animals d. complex carbohydrates e. liquid at room temperature and unsaturated : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.4 - Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 18. Four of the five s are lipids. Select the exception. a. steroids b. triglycerides c. oils d. waxes e. oligosaccharides : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.1 - Describe the structural properties of lipids. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember OTHER: Select the exception NOTES: Modified 19. What is an example of a saturated fat? a. olive oil b. corn oil c. butter d. canola oil e. soybean oil : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.4 - Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats. KEYWORDS: Bloom's Understand 20. Cell membranes are characterized by the presence of: a. triglycerides b. phospholipids c. unsaturated fats d. steroid hormones e. fatty acids : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.5 - Explain the structure of a lipid bilayer. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 21. Plant cuticles, which reduce water loss, are primarily made of: a. steroids b. triglycerides c. oils d. waxes e. fats : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.6 - Explain how the structure of wax is related to its function. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 22. Amino acids are the building blocks for: a. proteins b. steroids c. lipids d. nucleic acids e. carbohydrates : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.4 What are proteins? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.4.2 - Explain how proteins are formed from amino acids. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 23. What kind of bond exists between two amino acids in a protein? a. peptide b. ionic c. hydrogen d. amino e. sulfhydroxyl : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.4 What are proteins? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.4.2 - Explain how proteins are formed from amino acids. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 24. The sequence of amino acids is the ____ structure of proteins. a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary e. stereo : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.4 What are proteins? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.4.4 - Describe the four levels of protein structure. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 25. The association of four subunit peptides in a fully functional molecule of hemoglobin is a good example of ____ protein structure. a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary e. aggregate : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.4 What are proteins? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.4.5 - Describe the formation and function of some common types of proteins. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 26. Abnormally folded proteins that cause normal proteins to re-fold into abnormal configurations are called: a. prions b. nucleotides c. peptides d. polymers e. triglycerides : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.5 Why is protein structure important? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.5.2 - What are prions and why are they dangerous? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 27. The nucleotide most closely associated with energy transfer is: a. cyclic AMP b. FAD c. NAD d. ATP e. DNA : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.6 What are nucleic acids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.6.1 - Describe the structure of a nucleotide. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 28. Nucleotides contain what kind of sugars? a. three−carbon b. four−carbon c. five−carbon d. six−carbon e. seven−carbon : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.6 What are nucleic acids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.6.1 - Describe the structure of a nucleotide. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember Selecting the Exception 29. Four of the five s listed below are related as members of the same group. Select the exception. a. glucose b. fructose c. cellulose d. ribose e. deoxyribose : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2 - Describe the structure and function of the different types of carbohydrates. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception 30. Four of the five s listed below are carbohydrates. Select the exception. a. cholesterol b. cellulose c. starch d. sucrose e. glycogen : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2 - Describe the structure and function of the different types of carbohydrates. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception 31. Four of the five s listed below are lipids. Select the exception. a. triglyceride b. wax c. phospholipid d. amino acid e. steroid : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3 - Define the different types of lipids in terms of their structure and function. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception NOTES: Modified 32. Misfolded proteins are involved in four of the five following diseases. Select the exception. a. mad cow disease b. scrapie c. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease d. bovine spongiform encephalitis e. meningitis : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.5 Why is protein structure important? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.5.3 - Describe how misfolded PrPC proteins affect the brain. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Select the exception NOTES: Modified 33. What is the main structural component of plants? a. glucose b. glycogen c. chitin d. cellulose e. starch : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.4 - How is the structure of cellulose related to its function? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 34. Animals store energy in which type of carbohydrate? a. cellulose b. glycogen c. starch d. chitin e. sucrose : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.6 - What function does glycogen serve in the human body? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 35. What type of carbohydrate would you expect to find abundantly in the liver of humans? a. glycogen b. free glucose c. starch d. sucrose e. fructose : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.6 - What function does glycogen serve in the human body? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 36. Which carbohydrate polymer coils up? a. glycogen b. cellulose c. starch d. chitin e. all polysaccharides : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.5 - Describe the structure and function of starch. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 37. Humans are unable to digest which type of carbohydrate? a. glucose b. glycogen c. starch d. cellulose e. fructose : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.4 - How is the structure of cellulose related to its function? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 38. What type of lipid has four carbon rings and no tails? a. fats b. steroids c. waxes d. phospholipids e. triglycerides : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.7 - Describe the structure of steroids. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 39. Which part of a fatty acid is hydrophilic? a. carboxyl group head b. hydrocarbon tail c. glycerol head d. saturated tail e. unsaturated tail : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.2 - Explain the structure of fats. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 40. Which lipid forms cell membranes? a. unsaturated fats b. steroids c. waxes d. phospholipids e. saturated fats : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.5 - Explain the structure of a lipid bilayer. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 41. Cholesterol is a type of which lipid? a. unsaturated fats b. saturated fats c. phospholipids d. waxes e. steroids : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.3 What are lipids? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.3.7 - Describe the structure of steroids. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 42. What type of bond contributes to a protein’s secondary structure? a. peptide bonds b. covalent bonds c. ionic bonds d. hydrogen bonds e. protein bonds : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.4 What are proteins? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.4 - Explain how the structure of a protein determines its function. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 43. A polypeptide chain is composed of: a. amino acids b. proteins c. nucleic acids d. fatty acids e. monosaccharides : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.4 What are proteins? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.4.2 - Explain how proteins are formed from amino acids. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 44. What speeds up a reaction without being changed during the process? a. enzymes b. metabolism c. denaturation d. condensation e. metabolism : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.6 - What are metabolic reactions? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 45. A molecule that is organic is primarily composed of: a. water b. oxygen c. hydrogen only d. carbon only e. hydrogen and carbon : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.1 - Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New Matching The following are chemical functional groups that may be part of a biologically active molecule. the question(s) by matching the statement with the most appropriate group. a. −COOH b. −CH3 c. −NH2 d. −OH e. REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.4 - What are functional groups? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember OTHER: Classification Questions 46. The amine group : c POINTS: 1 47. The carboxyl group : a POINTS: 1 48. The phosphate group : e POINTS: 1 49. The hydroxyl group : d POINTS: 1 50. The methyl group : b POINTS: 1 Match each item with a statement below: a. disaccharide b. oligosaccharide c. polysaccharide d. glucose e. sucrose REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.1 - Describe the structure and function of monosaccharides. BCA.SES.3.2.2 - Explain the composition of oligosaccharides with a few examples. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 51. glucose fructose units : e POINTS: 1 52. short chain of bonded monosaccharides : b POINTS: 1 53. two monosaccharides : a POINTS: 1 54. complex carbohydrates : c POINTS: 1 55. molecule with six carbon atoms : d POINTS: 1 Match each item with a statement below: a. glycogen b. starch c. cellulose REFERENCES: Section 3.2 What is a carbohydrate? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.2.4 - How is the structure of cellulose related to its function? BCA.SES.3.2.5 - Describe the structure and function of starch. BCA.SES.3.2.6 - What function does glycogen serve in the human body? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 56. long and straight : c POINTS: 1 57. coiled : b POINTS: 1 58. branched : a POINTS: 1 59. energy reservoir for animals : a POINTS: 1 60. energy reservoir for plants : b POINTS: 1 61. structural material for plants : c POINTS: 1 Match each level of protein structure with a description below: a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary e. aggregates of protein REFERENCES: Section 3.4 What are proteins? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.4.4 - Describe the four levels of protein structure. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 62. proteins group into larger structures : e POINTS: 1 63. polypeptide chains form loops, coils, or sheets : b POINTS: 1 64. sequence of amino acids : a POINTS: 1 65. polypeptides fold up into a domain : c POINTS: 1 66. two or more polypeptide chains closely associate or bond together : d POINTS: 1 Match the proper chemical reaction with the descriptions below. a. hydrolysis b. condensation REFERENCES: Section 3.1 What are the molecules of life? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.3.1.7 - Differentiate between condensation and hydrolysis. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 67. chemical reaction builds polymers from monomers : b POINTS: 1 68. chemical reaction produces monomers from polymers : a POINTS: 1 69. an enzyme covalently bonds two molecules together : b POINTS: 1 70. water is produced : b POINTS: 1 Subjective Short 71. The formation of sucrose depicted in Figure "B" occurs by: a. cleavage b. condensation c. hydrolysis d. ionization e. electron transfer 72. In Figure "D," the polar portion is the: a. upper head b. lower tails 73. In Figure "C," the unsaturated fatty acid is: a. on the left b. in the middle c. on the right d. both left and middle 74. The molecule in Figure "A" is a(n): a. amino acid b. fatty acid c. monosaccharide d. nucleotide e. steroid 75. The primary component of cell membranes is depicted in Figure: a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E 76. In Figure "E," the sugar is: a. deoxyribose b. fructose c. glucose d. ribose e. sucrose 77. Differentiate between primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins. 78. What feature makes sugar molecules soluble in water? 79. Why do cells use monosaccharides for cellular fuel? 80. Why are saturated fats solid at room temperature while unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature? 81. Organic molecules, including the molecules of life, have at least one functional group. What is a functional group? How do functional groups affect the properties of molecules? 82. Why is partially hydrogenated vegetable oil an unhealthy artificial food product? Essay 83. Would it be problematic for a cell if it’s plasma membrane was inverted, with the phospholipid heads in the middle of the plasma membrane and the tails on the outside of the membrane? Why or why not?

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