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Chapter 01—INVITATION TO BIOLOGY. Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice 1. The smallest unit of life that can survive and reproduce on its own is a(n): a. atom b. cell c. molecule d. organ e. population : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from non-living things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1 - Describe the successive levels of organization in living things. TOPICS: Bloom's: Remember 2. All of the coyotes (Canis latrans) living in the Mojave Desert constitute a(n): a. ecosystem b. community c. biosphere d. organism e. population : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from non-living things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1.2 - Using suitable examples, describe the successive levels of organization in living things from atoms to the biosphere. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 3. What term describes "all populations of all species living in the same area"? a. ecosystem b. community c. biosphere d. organism e. population : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from non-living things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1 - Describe the successive levels of organization in living things. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 4. Organisms designated as producers usually obtain their energy from: a. other producers b. dead consumers c. decomposers d. the environment e. themselves : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.1 - Distinguish between producers and consumers. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 5. As energy is transferred among organisms, some escapes from the environment as ____ energy. a. electrical b. heat c. light d. mechanical e. nuclear : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.2 - Define homeostasis and explain why it is important for sustaining life. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 6. What is the process used by living things to maintain an internal environment within a tolerable range? a. metabolism b. homeostasis c. development d. physiology e. thermoregulation : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.2 - Define homeostasis and explain why it is important for sustaining life. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 7. About 12 to 24 hours after the last meal, a person's blood sugar level normally varies from 60 to 90 mg per 100 ml of blood, although it may rise to 130 mg per 100 ml after meals high in carbohydrates. That the blood sugar level is maintained within a fairly narrow range, despite uneven intake of sugar, is due to the bodily process called: a. adaptation b. homeostasis c. inheritance d. metabolism e. development : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.2 - Define homeostasis and explain why it is important for sustaining life. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Application NOTES: Modified 8. Hereditary instructions for growth and development are carried in: a. proteins b. carbohydrates c. DNA d. energy e. lipids : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.3 - List some functions that are guided by an organism’s DNA. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 9. What term refers to an increase in number, size, or volume in the cells of an organism? a. growth b. development c. reproduction d. evolution e. inheritance : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.3 - List some functions that are guided by an organism’s DNA. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 10. What term describes the process of transformation of the first cell of a new individual into an adult? a. inheritance b. genetics c. reproduction d. development e. sex : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.3 - List some functions that are guided by an organism’s DNA. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 11. Which domain or domains are made up of organisms without nuclei? a. archaea only b. bacteria only c. eukarya d. both archaea and bacteria e. both bacteria and eukarya : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.3 How are living things different? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.3 - Classify organisms on the basis of presence or absence of a nucleus. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 12. Which organisms are multicellular eukaryotes, with the majority being photosynthetic producers? a. plants b. animals c. fungi d. bacteria e. archaea : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.3 How are living things different? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.3.2 - What are the four main kingdoms of eukaryotes? KEYWORDS: Bloom's Remember NOTES: New 13. Which is the correct format for a scientific name? a. Homo Sapiens b. Homo Sapiens c. homo sapiens d. Homo sapiens e. Homo sapiens : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.1 - How are organisms named in the Linnaean system? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 14. A scientific name consists of which of the following? a. family name only b. genus name only c. species designation only d. family name and genus name e. genus name and specific epithet : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.1 - How are organisms named in the Linnaean system? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 15. What is the most diverse and inclusive classification group? a. domain b. genus c. kingdom d. phylum e. species : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.3 - List the taxa of the Linnaean classification system from species to domain. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 16. The eighteenth-century naturalist Carolus Linnaeus is known for creating: a. the theory of natural selection b. a system for naming and classifying organisms c. the biological species concept d. the first microscope e. the scientific method : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.1 - How are organisms named in the Linnaean system? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 17. Critical thinking is the process of: a. finding fault in yourself b. unconditionally accepting information from a trusted source c. designing a scientific experiment d. making a hypothesis e. judging the quality of information before accepting it : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 18. A testable explanation for a natural phenomenon is a(n): a. experiment b. hypothesis c. prediction d. model e. conclusive description : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.2 - Explain a few ways of testing a prediction. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: Modified 19. Arriving at a conclusion based upon one’s observations is known as: a. inductive reasoning b. deductive reasoning c. critical thinking d. logic e. the scientific method : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.1 - Differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 20. A scientist is investigating the results of varying temperature on the growth rate of a bacterial culture. In this experiment, temperature is the: a. dependent variable b. independent variable c. control d. model e. hypothesis : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.3 - Using a suitable example, distinguish between dependent and independent variables. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Application 21. In order to arrive at a solution to a problem, a scientist usually proposes and tests: a. laws b. theories c. hypotheses d. principles e. facts : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.2 - Explain a few ways of testing a prediction. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember 22. In an experiment, the experimental group is: a. not subjected to experimental error b. not exposed to experimental treatments c. maintained under strict laboratory conditions d. treated exactly the same as the control group, except for one independent variable e. statistically the most important part of the experiment : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.4 - How does an experimental group differ from a control group? KEYWORDS: | Bloom's: Understand 23. The control group in an experiment: a. makes the experiment valid b. is an additional replicate for statistical purposes c. reduces the experimental errors d. minimizes experimental inaccuracy e. allows a standard of comparison for the experimental group : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.4 - How does an experimental group differ from a control group? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand Selecting the Exception 24. An experimenter is involved in four of the five tasks below. Select the exception. a. revises a hypothesis as a result of data collected b. manipulates dependent variables c. reviews other research results obtained by other scientists d. examines the effects of independent variables e. draws conclusions based only on appropriate experimental data : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.5 - List the steps of the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 25. Four of the five s listed below are necessary characteristics to the life of an individual. Select the exception. a. energy use b. homeostasis c. development d. response to stimuli e. diversity : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2 - Describe the three key features that all living things share. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception 26. Four of the five s listed below are names of kingdoms. Select the exception. a. Animalia b. Protista c. Eukarya d. Fungi e. Plantae : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.4 What is a species? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.4.3 - List the taxa of the Linnaean classification system from species to domain. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember OTHER: Selecting the Exception 27. Four of the five s listed below are aspects of the scientific method. Select the exception. a. observation b. hypothesis c. experimentation d. philosophy e. conclusion : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.5 - List the steps of the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Selecting the Exception NOTES: Modified Exhibit 1-1 A scientist randomly divided a group of 100 lab rats into two groups of 50. One group was fed regular rat chow while the other was fed the same amount of rat chow with added DDT. Both groups were housed in the same room with the same environmental conditions. At the end of the experiment, rats were weighed and the mean difference calculated. 28. Refer to the accompanying narrative. What variable or variables were manipulated by the scientist? a. DDT only b. temperature only c. weight differences only d. both DDT and weight differences e. both temperature and weight differences : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.3 - Using a suitable example, distinguish between dependent and independent variables. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply | Analyze 29. Refer to the accompanying narrative. What dependent variable was measured? a. DDT b. temperature c. weight d. amount of food e. day length : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.3 - Using a suitable example, distinguish between dependent and independent variables. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply 30. In order to reduce bias, scientists usually prefer experiments that lead to what kind of results? a. ambiguous b. imprecise c. quantitative d. qualitative e. subjective : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 31. Suppose that in an experiment, different results are obtained from a subset than the results obtained from the whole. What term would best explain this? a. probability b. trend c. variable d. statistically significant e. sampling error : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.2 - How can sampling error be minimized? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 32. An experimenter surveyed one-half acre of a desert preserve and found three cactus wren nests. Assuming that the habitat is fairly uniform, how many nests would he expect to be in the entire 200-acre preserve? a. 6 b. 200 c. 600 d. 1200 e. 6000 : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.3 - When are experimental results said to be statistically significant? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply 33. An experimental result that is statistically significant is: a. likely to occur by chance alone b. unlikely to occur by chance alone c. scientifically significant or important d. the result of an experiment with only one variable e. influenced by sampling error : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.3 - When are experimental results said to be statistically significant? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 34. A hypothesis that has been repeatedly and rigorously tested and supported is known as a: a. model b. testable prediction c. scientific method d. scientific theory e. result : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.8.1 - When does a hypothesis become a scientific theory? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand 35. Which statement could be considered a scientific theory? a. Beauty pageant contestants are becoming increasingly more beautiful. b. Chemistry and physics are more exact sciences than biology. c. Change occurs in the inherited traits of a population over generations. d. The growth of a plant is faster in a growth chamber than in a greenhouse. e. Leaves bend toward the light because they know light is needed to grow. : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.8.3 - Explain how a scientific theory is different from a speculation or a law of nature. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: Modified 36. _____ is the transmission of DNA to offspring. a. Reproduction b. Development c. Homeostasis d. Inheritance e. Differentiation : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.4 - Explain how DNA forms the basis for similarities and differences between organisms. NOTES: Modified 37. Populations within California's Antelope Valley interact with their physical environment (e.g., sunlight and water) to sustain life. Which level of life's organization is appropriate for this scenario? a. population b. community c. biosphere d. ecosystem e. organism : d POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.1 How do living things differ from non-living things? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.1.2 - Using suitable examples, describe the successive levels of organization in living things from atoms to the biosphere. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 38. Plants use energy from the sun to produce nutrients. Plants are therefore: a. consumers b. reproducers c. producers d. decomposers e. developers : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.1 - Distinguish between producers and consumers. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 39. Grass growing in a field is eaten by a deer. Later on, the deer dies and its body is decomposed, in part, by bacteria. Which organism(s) are consumers? a. grass only b. deer only c. bacteria only d. grass and bacteria e. deer and bacteria : e POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2.1 - Distinguish between producers and consumers. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 40. Which eukaryotes break down food externally and then absorb nutrients? a. bacteria b. plants c. fungi d. animals e. protists : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.3 How are living things different? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.3.2 - What are the four main kingdoms of eukaryotes? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New 41. What term describes a consistent natural phenomenon for which there is an incomplete scientific explanation? a. scientific theory b. law of nature c. hypothesis d. scientific law e. scientific method : b POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.8 - Explain the nature of a scientific theory. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remember NOTES: New Figure 1.9 "Does Olestra cause cramps?" experiment. 42. Refer to the accompanying figure. If only 50 test subjects had been used in this study and it was determined that 40% of people in the experimental group get cramps (rather than 15.8%), what is the most likely reason for the different results? a. The researcher was biased in their data analysis. b. The data was collected incorrectly. c. The Olestra potato chips were given to the wrong group. d. There is a sampling error due to a small sample size. e. The statistical probability was not calculated. : c POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.7 What are some potential pitfalls in scientific inquiry? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.2 - How can sampling error be minimized? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Analyze NOTES: New 43. Refer to the accompanying figure. What was the independent variable in this experiment? a. The consumption of potato chips b. The number of bags of potato chips eaten c. The amount of time given to consume the bag of potato chips d. The previous exposure of test subjects to Olestra in their diet before the experiment e. The presence of Olestra in the potato chips : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.7.2 - How can sampling error be minimized? KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New 44. Refer to the accompanying figure. What was the dependent variable in this experiment? a. The presence of intestinal cramps b. The amount of chips eaten c. The taste of Olestra versus regular chips d. The final weight of the test subjects e. The presence of general adverse health reports : a POINTS: 1 REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5.3 - Using a suitable example, distinguish between dependent and independent variables. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: New Matching the question(s) by matching the statement to the most appropriate function, process, or trait listed below. a. metabolism b. reproduction c. photosynthesis d. growth e. homeostasis REFERENCES: Section 1.2 How are all living things alike? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.2 - Describe the three key features that all living things share. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand OTHER: Classification Questions NOTES: Modified 45. A process found only in producers : c POINTS: 1 46. Organisms exhibit this characteristic, which tends to buffer the effects of environmental change : e POINTS: 1 47. The capacity to acquire, store, and use energy : a POINTS: 1 48. Process in which one generation replaces another : b POINTS: 1 Match the terms with the most suitable description. a. statement of what a hypothesis leads you to expect b. measure of chance c. testable explanation d. time-tested hypothesis REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? Section 1.8 What is a theory? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. BCA.SES.1.8 - Explain the nature of a scientific theory. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understand NOTES: Modified 49. hypothesis : c POINTS: 1 50. probability : b POINTS: 1 51. scientific theory : d POINTS: 1 52. prediction : a POINTS: 1 Imagine that a researcher for a large food company believes that he has developed a new drug that increases appetite. He names the drug "EatMore" and designs an experiment to test his hypothesis. He used two groups of mice; one group is given the drug and the other group given a placebo sugar pill. The appetite levels were measured based on the amount of food consumed by mice in each group for one week. At the end of the experiment, he reported that on average, mice that received the "EatMore" drug consumed 2.5g of food/day and mice that received the placebo consumed 5g of food/day. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the difference was statistically significant. Match the following terms with the conditions related to the accompanying experiment: a. independent variable b. dependent variable c. experimental group d. control group REFERENCES: Section 1.5 How does science work? LEARNING OBJECTIVES: BCA.SES.1.5 - Explain the scientific method. KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Apply NOTES: New 53. The amount of food consumed : b POINTS: 1 54. The mice that received the placebo : d POINTS: 1 55. The treatment of the "EatMore" drug : a POINTS: 1 56. The mice that received the "EatMore" drug Match the following terms with the appropriate level of organization: a. atom b. cell c. organ system d. population e. community f. ecosystem 57. all arctic animals, plants, etc. interacting with their physical environment 58. red blood 59. arctic foxes, polar bears, fish, mosses, shrubs (all species in the arctic tundra) 60. oxygen 61. group of arctic foxes in the arctic tundra 62. circulatory system Subjective Short 63. The cell theory states that all organisms consist of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and all cells arise from existing cells. This is a scientific theory. How could the cell theory be disproven? Figure 1.9 "Does Olestra cause cramps?" experiment. 64. Refer to the accompanying figure. What are some variables that were not controlled for in this experiment that may affect the results? Imagine that a researcher for a large food company believes that he has developed a new drug that increases appetite. He names the drug "EatMore" and designs an experiment to test his hypothesis. He used two groups of mice; one group is given the drug and the other group given a placebo sugar pill. The appetite levels were measured based on the amount of food consumed by mice in each group for one week. At the end of the experiment, he reported that on average, mice that received the "EatMore" drug consumed 2.5g of food/day and mice that received the placebo consumed 5g of food/day. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the difference was statistically significant. 65. the following questions about the accompanying experiment. a. What is the researcher's hypothesis? b. What would be the researcher's prediction? c. Why may this experiment be performed with a model organism, rather than on humans? d. Was the researcher's hypothesis correct? e. What may be some alternate explanations for the outcome? 66. Arrange the following terms in order from least complex to most complex: a. biosphere b. cell c. atom d. population e. organ f. community g. ecosystem 67. You are interviewing a researcher. She states that she does not publish her data from experiments because she does not trust other scientists. How would you respond? (Hint: think about one of the main steps of the scientific method). Essay 68. A person is declared to be dead upon the irreversible cessation of spontaneous body functions: brain activity, or blood circulation and respiration. However, only about 1% of a person’s cells have to die in order for all of these things to happen. How can someone be dead when 99% of his or her cells are still alive? 69. Why would you think twice about ordering from a cafe menu that lists the genus name but not the specific epithet of its offerings? Hint: Look up Homarus americanus, Ursus americanus, Ceanothus americanus, Bufo americanus, Lepus americanus, and Nicrophorus americanus. 70. Once there was a highly intelligent turkey that had nothing to do but reflect on the world’s regularities. Morning always started out with the sky turning light, followed by the master’s footsteps, which were always followed by the appearance of food. Other things varied, but food always followed footsteps. The sequence of events was so predictable that it eventually became the basis of the turkey’s theory about the goodness of the world. One morning, after more than 100 confirmations of the goodness theory, the turkey listened for the master’s footsteps, heard them, and had its head chopped off. Any scientific theory is modified or discarded upon discovery of contradictory evidence. The absence of absolute certainty has led some people to conclude that “facts are irrelevant—facts change.” If that is so, should we stop doing scientific research? Why or why not? 71. In 2005, researcher Woo-suk Hwang reported that he had made immortal stem cells from human patients. His research was hailed as a breakthrough for people affected by degenerative diseases, because stem cells may be used to repair a person’s own damaged tissues. Hwang published his results in a peer-reviewed journal. In 2006, the journal retracted his paper after other scientists discovered that Hwang’s group had faked their data. Does the incident show that results of scientific studies cannot be trusted? Or does it confirm the usefulness of a scientific approach, because other scientists discovered and exposed the fraud?

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