Chapter_1_Nerve_Cells_and_Nerve_Impulses. Questions and Answers - $8.99   Add to cart

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Chapter_1_Nerve_Cells_and_Nerve_Impulses. Questions and Answers

Chapter_1_Nerve_Cells_and_Nerve_Impulses / 1. Dendrites contain the nuclei, ribosomes, mitochondria, and other structures found in most cells. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 2. Neurons receive information and transmit it to other cells. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 3. An afferent axon brings information into a structure. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 4. An efferent axon carries information away from a structure. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 5. The greater the surface area of a dendrite, the more information it can receive from other neurons. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 6. Neurons are distinguished from other cells by their shape. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 7. Glial cells serve many functions. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 8. Glial cells transmit information across long distances. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 9. Schwann cells build the myelin sheaths in the periphery of the body. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 10. The blood-brain barrier is made up of closely packed glial cells. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood-Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 11. The difference in voltage in a resting neuron is called the resting potential. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 12. Increasing the electrical gradient for potassium will reduce the tendency for potassium ions to exit the neuron. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 13. At the resting potential, the potassium channels are completely closed and the sodium channels are almost closed. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 14. A prolonged increase in the permeability of the membrane to sodium ions would interfere with a neuron's ability to have an action potential. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 15. Both dendrites and cell bodies are capable of producing action potentials. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse Multiple Choice 16. The two basic kinds of cells in the nervous system are _____. a. neurons and glia b. dendrites and axons c. ribosomes and lysosomes d. neurons and axons : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 17. Santiago Ramon y Cajal demonstrated that ____. a. at rest, the neuron has a negative charge inside its membrane b. neurons are separate from one another c. neurons communicate at specialized junctions called synapses d. action potentials follow the all-or-none law : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 18. Which scientific work did Cajal apply to his study of infant brains? a. Charles Sherrington's study of reflexes b. Camillo Golgi's cell staining method c. Perves & Hadley's dye injection method d. Galileo's invention of the telescope : a REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 19. The cell membrane is composed of two layers of _____. a. protein b. fat c. carbohydrate d. plasma : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 20. Neurons differ most strongly from other body cells in their ____. a. temperature b. shape c. osmotic pressure d. mitochondria : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 21. What do neurons have that other cells do not? a. a plasma membrane b. large, branching extensions c. protein channels d. an endoplasmic reticulum : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 22. What structure is composed of two layers of fat molecules that are free to flow around one another? a. the endoplasmic reticulum b. a ribosome c. a mitochondrion d. the membrane : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 23. Water, oxygen, and ____ most freely flow across a cell membrane. a. calcium b. positively charged ions c. magnesium d. carbon dioxide : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood-Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 24. The structure that contains a cell’s chromosomes is called the ____. a. endoplasmic reticulum b. nucleus c. mitochondrion d. ribosome : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 25. Small, charged molecules can cross the cell membrane through ____. a. diffusion b. ribosomes c. mitochondria d. protein channels : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood-Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 26. Protein channels allow ____ molecules to cross the cell membrane. a. large charged b. small charged c. large uncharged d. small uncharged : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 27. Ribosomes are the part of a cell that ____. a. performs metabolic activities b. breaks down harmful chemicals c. transports proteins d. synthesizes new proteins : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 28. The endoplasmic reticulum is a ____. a. network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins b. site where the cell synthesizes new protein molecules c. structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside d. structure that contains the chromosomes : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 29. Dendrites ____. a. contain the nucleus, ribosomes, and other structures found in most cells b. are branching fibers that get narrower near their ends c. are thin fibers of constant diameter d. are an insulating material that cover an axon : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 30. The branching fibers that form the information-receiving pole of the nerve cells are called _____. a. motor neurons b. dendrites c. sensory neurons d. axons : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 31. The surface of a dendrite is lined with specialized junctions through which the dendrite receives information from other neurons. What are these junctions called? a. synaptic receptors b. axons c. synaptic hillocks d. glia : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 32. The tree-like branches of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called _____. a. axons b. dendrites c. soma d. myelin : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 33. Many dendrites contain short outgrowths called spines that _____. a. increase the surface area available for synapses b. increase the speed of transmission c. eliminate cell waste products d. increase the symmetry of the cel. : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 34. As compared to dendrites, axons usually ____. a. form the information-receiving pole of the neuron b. are shorter in length c. are covered with myelin d. taper in diameter toward their periphery : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 35. The insulating material that covers many vertebrate axons is called the ____. a. dendrite b. myelin sheath c. cell body or soma d. presynaptic terminal : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 36. Nodes of Ranvier are ____. a. gaps in the myelin of axons b. also known as myelin sheath c. spiny outgrowths on dendrites d. responsible for cell metabolism : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 37. Gaps in the insulating material that surrounds axons are known as ____. a. interpeduncular nuclei b. nodes of Ranvier c. myelin synapses d. presynaptic terminals : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 38. A presynaptic terminal is also known as ____. a. an end bulb b. a node of Ranvier c. myelin d. a spine : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 39. An axon has many branches, each of which swells at its tip. These are known as ____. a. presynaptic terminals b. efferent axons c. afferent axons d. intrinsic neurons : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 40. Chemicals are released by axons ____. a. into the presynaptic terminal b. into the junction between neurons c. through the efferent terminals d. to the mitochondria : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 41. Neurons typically have one ____, but many ____. a. dendrite; axons b. axon; dendrites c. cell body; axons d. dendrite; cell bodies : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 42. As a general rule, axons convey information ____. a. toward dendrites of their own cell b. toward their own cell body c. away from their own cell body d. to surrounding glia : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 43. If you were to accidentally touch a hot stove with your hand, you would quickly pull your hand away. The information carried to the muscles in your arm to make them contract was carried by ____. a. efferent neurons b. afferent neurons c. intrinsic neurons d. sensory neurons : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 44. If all of a neuron's dendrites or axons were contained within the spinal cord, it would be considered a(n) ____ neuron. a. efferent b. afferent c. intrinsic d. Purkinje : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 45. What type of neuron in the pons receives information only from other cells in the pons and sends information only to other cells in the pons? a. afferent b. efferent c. intrinsic d. inter-synaptic : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 46. Glial cells ____. a. are less numerous than neurons in the human brain. b. transmit information over long distances within the central nervous system. c. occupy about ten times more space in the brain than do neurons. d. are smaller but more numerous than neurons in the human brain. : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 47. What type of glia helps to synchronize the activity of axons? a. oligodendrocytes b. astrocytes c. radial glia d. Schwann cells : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 48. Which type of glia remove waste material in the nervous system? a. astrocytes b. Schwann cells c. oligodendrocytes d. radial glia : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 49. What type of glial cells myelinate axons in the brain and spinal cord? a. oligodendrocytes b. Schwann cells c. radial glia d. astrocytes : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 50. Which type of glia release chemicals that modify the activity of neighboring neurons? a. astrocytes b. Schwann cells c. oligodendrocytes d. radial glia : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 51. Which type of glia builds myelin sheaths around axons in the periphery of the body? a. astrocytes b. Schwann cells c. oligodendrocytes d. radial glia : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 52. ____ in the brain and spinal cord and ____ in the periphery are specialized types of glia that build the myelin sheaths that surround neurons. a. Oligodendrocytes; Schwann cells b. Schwann cells; oligodendrocytes c. Microglia; oligodendrocytes d. Radial glia; Schwann cells : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 53. Glial cells whose function most closely resembles that of the immune system are called ____. a. oligodendrocytes b. Schwann cells c. microglia d. radial glia : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 54. Radial glia ____. a. guide the migration of neurons during embryonic development b. synchronize the activity of axons c. wrap around the presynaptic terminals of several axons d. build the myelin sheaths that surround and insulate certain axons : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Anatomy of Neurons and Glia LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.01 - Describe neurons and glia, the cells that constitute the nervous system. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 55. What mechanism prevents or slows some chemicals from entering the brain, while allowing others to enter? a. a threshold b. a blood-brain barrier c. an endoplasmic wall d. a differential-drug inhibitor : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood-Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 56. What happens to a virus that manages to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain? a. It is quickly destroyed by natural killer cells. b. It gets trapped in a neuron, and then both are destroyed by natural killer cells. c. It gets trapped in a glial cell, and then both are destroyed by natural killer cells. d. It remains there and may cause negative effects several years later. : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood-Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 57. Molecules that can cross the blood-brain barrier are usually ____. a. large, uncharged molecules, such as lactose b. large, charged molecules c. neurotransmitters, such as dopamine d. molecules that can dissolve in the fats of the capillary walls : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood-Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 58. The major disadvantage of a blood-brain barrier is that ____. a. many chemicals can easily diffuse into the brain b. so much glucose is required to maintain it c. certain required chemicals must be actively transported d. viruses cannot escape : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood-Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 59. Glucose enters the brain via which type of transport? a. indirect transport b. direct transport c. passive transport d. active transport : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Blood-Brain Barrier LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 60. What is the main source of nutrition for vertebrate neurons? a. fats b. glucose c. sodium d. complex carbohydrates : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 61. Why do neurons rely so heavily on glucose as their source of nutrition? a. Neurons lack the enzymes necessary to metabolize other fuels. b. Glucose is the only fuel that can be used even in the absence of vitamins. c. Glucose is not used extensively by other parts of the body. d. Other fuels do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier. : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 62. Why does the brain need thiamine? a. to enable glucose to cross the blood-brain barrier b. as a source of fuel in case there is not enough glucose c. as a building block for making proteins d. to enable it to metabolize glucose : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 63. What leads to Korsakoff's syndrome? a. thiamine deficiency due to chronic alcoholism b. glucose deficiency due to chronic alcoholism c. viruses that manage to cross the blood-brain barrier d. glial cells that over-reproduce and increase pressure in the brain : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 64. Korsakoff's syndrome ____. a. is marked by severe memory impairments b. results from too much thiamine c. results from lack of oxygen to the brain d. is due to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.02 - Summarize how the blood–brain barrier relates to protection and nutrition of neurons. TOPICS: 1.1 The Cells of the Nervous System 65. The membrane of a neuron is composed of ____ with ____ embedded in them. a. carbohydrates; purines b. fat molecules; proteins c. proteins; neurotransmitters d. benzene molecules; carbohydrates : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 66. What term describes the difference in voltage that typically exists between the inside and the outside of a neuron? a. concentration gradient b. generator potential c. resting potential d. shock gradient : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 67. The idea that a neuron's membrane is polarized refers to a difference in electrical potential between ____. a. the axons and the dendrites b. the axon hillock and the cell body c. sodium ions and potassium ions d. the inside and the outside of the membrane : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 68. The resting potential is mainly the result of ____. a. negatively charged proteins inside the cell b. positively charged proteins inside the cell c. negatively charged proteins outside the cell d. positively charged proteins outside the cell : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 69. The resting potential of a neuron refers to the ____. a. net positive charge on the inside of the neuron b. ions which rest in one place in the cell c. movement of ions to the outside of the neuron d. net negative charge on the inside of the neuron : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 70. What is the approximate resting potential of the inside of a neuron's membrane, relative to the outside? a. -70 millivolts b. 10 millivolts c. 0 millivolts d. 90 millivolts : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 71. When the neuronal membrane is at rest, the potassium channels ____. a. permit potassium ions to pass quickly and easily b. permit potassium ions to pass slowly c. prohibit any movement of potassium ions d. help to open up the sodium channels : b DIFFICULTY: help to open up the sodium channels REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 72. When the neuronal membrane is at rest, the sodium channels ____. a. permit sodium ions to pass quickly and easily b. are at equilibrium with potassium channels c. are closed, so there is almost no flow of sodium d. allow sodium to leak out as a steady, continuous drip : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 73. Which of the following describes selective permeability? a. Ions can only travel in certain directions across the membrane. b. Only certain molecules are allowed to cross the membrane freely. c. Only certain types of stimulation will result in an action potential. d. All molecules must pass through designated channels. : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 74. When a neuron’s membrane is at rest, the concentration gradient tends to move sodium ____ the cell and the electrical gradient tends to move it ____ the cell. a. into; into b. into; out of c. out of; into d. out of; out of : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 75. When a neuron’s membrane is at rest, the concentration gradient tends to move potassium ____ the cell and the electrical gradient tends to move it ____ the cell. a. into; into b. into; out of c. out of; into d. out of; out of : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 76. Electrical gradients lead to the ____. a. general movement of ions into the neuron b. general movement of ions out of the neuron c. movement of ions to areas having the same electrical charges d. movement of ions to areas having opposite electrical charges : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 77. Under which conditions would the sodium-potassium pump likely be far less effective in creating a concentration gradient? a. if dendrites were generally longer than axons b. if the glia-to-neuron ratio were higher c. if selective permeability of the membrane did not exist d. if it were an active transport system that required energy : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 78. The net effect of each cycle of the sodium-potassium pump is to ____. a. decrease the number of positively charged ions within the cell b. increase the number of positively charged ions within the cell c. decrease the number of positively charged ions outside the cell d. increase the number of negatively charged ions within the cell : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 79. What is one major cause for the resting potential of a neuron's membrane? a. a difference in size between axons and dendrites b. a high permeability of the membrane to water molecules c. the refractory period of the membrane d. the sodium-potassium pump : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 80. The concentration gradient refers to the ____. a. fact that the concentration of ions is greater on the inside of a neuron b. fact that the concentration of ions is greater on the outside of a neuron c. difference in distribution for various ions between the inside and outside of the membrane d. negatively charged proteins inside the cell : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 81. Which event will increase the concentration gradient of sodium? a. decreasing permeability to potassium ions b. increasing activity of the sodium potassium pump c. increasing membrane permeability to sodium ions d. increasing membrane permeability to chloride ions : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 82. The concentration gradient for potassium tends to ____. a. draw potassium into the cell b. push chloride out of the cell c. push sodium out of the cell d. push potassium out of the cell : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 83. When the neuron is at rest, what is primarily responsible for moving potassium ions OUT of the cell? a. a concentration gradient b. an electrical gradient c. both a concentration gradient and an electrical gradient d. the sodium-potassium pump : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 84. When a neuron is at rest, what is primarily responsible for moving potassium ions into the cell? a. concentration gradient b. an electrical gradient c. the sodium-potassium pump d. both the sodium-potassium pump and electrical gradient : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 85. When a membrane is at rest, what attracts potassium ions to the inside of the cell? a. an electrical gradient b. a concentration gradient c. both an electrical gradient and a concentration gradient d. neither an electrical gradient nor a concentration gradient : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 86. When a membrane is at rest, what attracts sodium ions to the inside of the cell? a. an electrical gradient b. a concentration gradient c. both an electrical gradient and a concentration gradient d. neither an electrical gradient nor a concentration gradient : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 87. Which of the following is an advantage of having a resting potential? a. The toxic effects of sodium are minimized inside the cell. b. No energy is required to maintain it. c. The cell is prepared to respond quickly to a stimulus. d. All of the ions are maintained in equal concentrations throughout the cytoplasm. : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Resting Potential of the Neuron LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.03 - Explain how the sodium–potassium pump and the properties of the membrane lead to the resting potential of a neuron. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 88. Ordinarily, stimulation of a neuron takes place ____. a. through hyperpolarization b. at the synapse c. in the mitochondria d. in the endoplasmic reticulum : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 89. What occurs when a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a more negative potential? a. hyperpolarization b. depolarization c. an action potential d. a threshold : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 90. Which action will produce a hyperpolarization of a neuron? a. applying a negative charge inside the neuron with a microelectrode b. applying a positive charge inside the neuron with a microelectrode c. increasing the membrane's permeability to sodium d. decreasing the membrane's permeability to potassium : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 91. The neuron will produce an action potential only if the depolarization exceeds the ____. a. The neuron will produce an action potential only if the depolarization exceeds the ____. b. the resting potential c. hyperpolarization d. the refractory period : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 92. A membrane produces an action potential whenever the potential across it reaches what level? a. the resting potential b. -90 mV c. the threshold of excitation d. the refractory period : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 93. What action tends to open the sodium gates across a neuron's membrane? a. hyperpolarization of the membrane b. depolarization of the membrane c. increase in the sodium concentration outside the neuron d. passing the peak of the action potential and entering the refractory period : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 94. What occurs when depolarization is less than the cell's threshold? a. Sodium is prevented from crossing the membrane. b. Potassium is prevented from crossing the membrane. c. Sodium crosses the membrane only slightly more than usual. d. The cell will still produce an action potential. : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 95. Which action would depolarize a neuron? a. decreasing membrane permeability to calcium b. increasing membrane permeability to potassium c. decreasing membrane permeability to sodium d. increasing membrane permeability to sodium : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 96. The action potential of a neuron depends mostly on what movement of ions? a. sodium ions entering the cell b. sodium ions leaving the cell c. potassium ions entering the cell d. potassium ions leaving the cell : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 97. In the normal course of an action potential, ____. a. sodium channel remain open for long periods of time b. the concentration of sodium equalizes across the membrane c. sodium remains much more concentrated outside than inside the neuron d. subthreshold stimulation intensifies the action potential : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 98. Voltage-activated channels are channels for which a change in the voltage across the membrane alters their ____. a. permeability b. length c. number d. threshold : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 99. At the peak of the action potential, the electrical gradient of potassium ____. a. is the same as during the resting potential b. pulls sodium into the cell c. pushes potassium out of the cell d. pulls potassium into the cell : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 100. When the potential across a membrane reaches threshold, the sodium channels ____. a. open to let sodium enter the cell rapidly b. close to prevent sodium from entering the cell c. open to let sodium exit the cell rapidly d. close to prevent sodium from exiting the cell : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 101. A drug that blocks the sodium gates of a neuron's membrane will ____. a. decrease the threshold b. block the action potential c. cause repeated action potentials d. eliminate the refractory period : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 102. After the peak of an action potential, what prevents sodium ions from continuing to enter the cell? a. There is no longer a concentration gradient for sodium. b. The sodium-potassium pump greatly increases its rate of activity. c. All the available sodium ions have already entered the cell. d. The sodium gates in the membrane close. : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 103. At what point do the sodium gates begin to close, shutting out further entry of sodium into the cell? a. at the peak of the action potential b. when the threshold is reached c. at the end of the relative refractory period d. when the concentration gradient for sodium is eliminated : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 104. What causes potassium ions to leave the axon just after the peak of the action potential? a. a continuing concentration gradient and the opening of the potassium gates b. an increase in the concentration gradient across the membrane c. an increased tendency of the sodium-potassium pump to push potassium out d. binding of potassium ions to proteins that leave at this time : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 105. A drug will prevent an action potential if it ____. a. lowers the threshold of the membrane b. blocks the movement of potassium across the membrane c. blocks the movement of sodium across the membrane d. increases the movement of sodium across the membrane : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Action Potential LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.01.04 - Discuss how the movement of sodium and potassium ions produces the action potential and recovery after it. TOPICS: 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 106. Local anesthetic drugs attach to the sodium channels of the membrane, which ____. a. allows sodium ions to enter and stop action potential b. prevents potassium ions from entering and stopping action potential c. allows potassium ions to enter and stop action potential d. prevents sodium ions from entering and stopping action potential 107. The all-or-none law states that ____. a. a neuron produces an action potential of maximal strength, or none at all b. all neurons fire or none at all c. all neurons in a pathway fire at the same time, or none do d. all ions move in the same direction, or none do Bloom’s: Understand The Action Potential KALA.BIOP.16.01.05 - State the all-or-none law of the action potential. 1.2 The Nerve Impulse 108. According to the all-or-none law, ____. a. all neurons produce an action potential at the same time or none at all b. all of the extracellular sodium enters the axon, or none at all c. once an axon reaches threshold, the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are nearly equal each time d. neurons are either active all the time or not at all 109. The primary feature of a neuron that prevents the action potential from traveling back from where it just passed is the ____. a. concentration gradient b. refractory period c. sodium potassium pump d. phospholipid bilayer 110. During the relative refractory period, the ____. a. sodium gates are firmly closed b. sodium gates are reverting to their usual state c. sodium gates are wide open d. potassium gates are firmly closed 111. What will most affect the speed of an action potential? a. the strength of the stimulus b. the time since the last action potential c. the length of the axon d. the resistance of the membrane 112. The speed of an action potential down an unmyelinated axon is best described as ____. a. the speed of electricity, regardless of the size of the axon b. less than 1 meter per second, regardless of the size of the axon c. faster in thin axons than in thick ones d. faster in thick axons than in thin ones 113. The function of a myelin sheath is to ____. a. prevent action potentials from traveling in the wrong direction b. increase the velocity of transmission along an axon c. increase the magnitude of an action potential d. provide a store of nutrients for the neuron 114. In what direction does a local neuron transmit information? a. through its dendrites to cell body to axon b. through its axon to cell body to dendrites c. only toward the cell body d. equally well in any direction 115. Which of the following describes the transmission of information in a local neuron? a. The signal decreases in strength as it travels. b. The signal increases in strength as it travels. c. The signal strength remains constant as it travels. d. Local neurons do not transmit any information. Essay 116. Describe the structure of the blood-brain barrier and explain why it is important. 117. Provide a summary of the all-or-none law of action potentials. 118. Describe how the brain transports essential chemicals. 119. Describe the key aspects of the resting potential. 120. Explain the function and process of a neuron’s refractory period.

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