Introduction To Biological Psychology.. Overview and Major Issues. Questions and Answers - $8.99   Add to cart

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Introduction To Biological Psychology.. Overview and Major Issues. Questions and Answers

Introduction Overview and Major Issues / 1. An ontogenetic explanation is one that describes the development of a structure or behavior. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 2. Gottfried Leibniz (1714) posed the question: “Why is there something rather than nothing?” a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.02 - List three general points that are important to remember from this text. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 3. The mind-body problem refers to how the mind controls the body. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.02 - List three general points that are important to remember from this text. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 4. The universe could have been different in many ways, nearly all of which would have made life impossible a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.02 - List three general points that are important to remember from this text. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 5. Chalmers explanation of the mind-body problem has largely laid the issue to rest. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.02 - List three general points that are important to remember from this text. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 6. Neurons vary enormously in size, shape, and functions. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 7. Perception occurs primarily in sense organs. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 8. Electrical stimulation of your brain can produce a hand experience even if you had no hand. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.01 - Briefly state the mind–brain problem and contrast monism with dualism. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 9. Mental activity and certain types of brain activity are, so far as we can tell, inseparable. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.01 - Briefly state the mind–brain problem and contrast monism with dualism. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 10. Research scientists are free to do as they wish when conducting research with animals. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Use of Animals in Research LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.04 - Discuss the ethical issues of research with laboratory animals. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 11. The underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Use of Animals in Research LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.04 - Discuss the ethical issues of research with laboratory animals. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 12. Invertebrate nerve action follows the same basic principles as human nerves. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Use of Animals in Research LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.04 - Discuss the ethical issues of research with laboratory animals. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 13. Minimalists do not tolerate any kind of animal research. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Use of Animals in Research LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.04 - Discuss the ethical issues of research with laboratory animals. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 14. Abolitionists maintain that animals do not have the same rights as humans. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Use of Animals in Research LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.04 - Discuss the ethical issues of research with laboratory animals. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 15. The dispute between abolitionists and animal researchers is a dispute between two ethical positions. a. b. : DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Use of Animals in Research TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues Multiple Choice 16. Biological psychologists are primarily interested in the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and ____. a. social influences on attitudes b. developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience c. cultural mechanisms of society as a whole d. psychological influences on disease : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 17. A cognitive neuroscientist is most likely to ____. a. conduct behavioral tests to determine the abilities and disabilities of people with various kinds of brain damage b. study scans of brain anatomy or activity to analyze and explore people’s knowledge, thinking, and problem solving c. relate behaviors to the functions they have served and, therefore, the presumed selective pressures that caused them to evolve d. identify educational needs of schoolchildren, devise a plan to meet the needs, and then help teachers implement it : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 18. Jill studies how hormones influence sexual behavior of rats. She is most likely a ____. a. biological psychologist b. neuroscientist c. clinical psychologist d. psychiatrist : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 19. A fundamental property is one that ____. a. s all questions b. occurs only in certain parts of the nervous system c. cannot be reduced to something else d. cannot be explained : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.01 - Briefly state the mind–brain problem and contrast monism with dualism. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 20. A person who believes that hormones released at different stages of the menstrual cycle affect a person’s mood is using a(n) ____ explanation. a. functional b. ontogenetic c. physiological d. evolutionary : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 21. A(n) ____ explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did. a. functional b. ontogenetic c. physiological d. evolutionary : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 22. A(n) ____ describes development, including the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions. a. functional b. ontogenetic c. physiological d. evolutionary : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 23. Understanding how genes, nutrition, and experience work together to produce a tendency toward a particular sexual orientation is an example of a(n) ____ explanation. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. functional d. common sense : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 24. Which type of explanation best describes how a structure or behavior develops? a. physiological b. ontogenetic c. evolutionary d. functional : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 25. A(n) ____ explanation describes eating in terms of the hypothalamus affecting insulin production, which affects the availability of glucose in cells. a. physiological b. ontogenetic c. evolutionary d. functional : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 26. Explaining differences in running speed as a function of differences in muscle fiber types is an example of a(n) ____ explanation. a. ontogenetic b. physiologicalphysiological c. evolutionary d. functional : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 27. A person who studies the genetic predisposition to be aggressive in combination with early aggressive experiences is seeking a(n) ____ explanation. a. physiological b. behavioral c. evolutionary d. ontogenetic : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 28. Mapping out the relationship between shared bone structures across different species suggests that there is a(n) ____ explanation. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. behavioral d. physiological : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 29. An evolutionary explanation of why we get goose bumps when cold is that ____. a. our sympathetic nervous system is activated b. we inherited the mechanism from our remote ancestors who had more hair c. we have a preference for being warm d. our children are often raised in cold environments : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 30. Human language developed as the result of genes and the opportunity to hear language during a sensitive period in early life. What type of explanation is this? a. physiological b. ontogenetic c. evolutionary d. functional : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Analyze REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 31. Some animals have camouflage that matches their typical surroundings in order to provide protection from predators. What type of explanation does this illustrate? a. evolutionary b. functional c. ontogenetic d. physiological : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 32. Which type of explanation might describe the presence of a behavior in a particular species by showing how that behavior increased the reproductive success of the species? a. physiological b. ontogenetic c. evolutionary d. solipsistic : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 33. Which type of explanation describes why a particular structure or behavior is advantageous? a. physiological b. ontogenetic c. evolutionary d. functional : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 34. In a small population of sheep, the dominant male may produce many more offspring than the other males, spreading his genes. This is an example of ____. a. assimilation b. artificial selection c. genetic drift d. recombination : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 35. Which explanation of human behavior focuses most on learning through experience? a. physiological b. ontogenetic c. evolutionary d. functional : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 36. Consciousness does not occur when you are ____. a. in a coma b. daydreaming c. watching television d. exercising : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 37. An adult male sparrow sings its normal song ____. a. if he hears the song during a sensitive period early in his life b. only when he hears a female bird singing c. if his own species' song is the first song he hears when young d. regardless of whether or not he has ever heard his species' song from another bird : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 38. Consciousness occurs ____. a. in all kinds of nervous systems some of the time b. in certain parts of certain kinds of nervous system all of the time c. in certain parts of certain kinds of nervous systems some of the time d. in all kinds of nervous systems all of the time : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.01 - Briefly state the mind–brain problem and contrast monism with dualism. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 39. The view of the brain from above is called the ____ view. a. anterior b. ventral c. dorsal d. posterior : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 40. A particular area of a songbird brain grows under the influence of testosterone; hence, it is larger in breeding males than in females or immature birds. That brain area enables a mature male to sing. What type of explanation is illustrated here? a. evolutionary b. ontogenetic c. neurological d. physiological : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 41. In many species, a young male bird learns its song by listening to adult males. Development of the song requires certain genes and the opportunity to hear the appropriate song during a sensitive period early in life. What type of explanation is illustrated here? a. evolutionary b. ontogenetic c. neurological d. physiological : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 42. Certain pairs of species have similar songs. For example, dunlins and Baird’s sandpipers, two shorebird species, give their calls in distinct pulses, unlike other shorebirds. What type of explanation is suggested here? a. evolutionary b. ontogenetic c. neurological d. physiological : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 43. The sea dragon is a fish that looks and acts like kelp in order to attract its food. A researcher proposes that this is due to a genetic modification that expands smaller appendages already present in these fish’s ancestors. What type of explanation is this? a. functional b. evolutionary c. ontogenetic d. biological : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 44. Which field is least likely to focus primarily on research? a. neuroscience b. psychophysiology c. neurochemistry d. neurology : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 45. A(n) ____ investigates the chemical reactions in the brain. a. neurochemist b. psychophysiologist c. comparative psychologist d. neurologist : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 46. A stroke patient might seek the aid of a(n) ____ to increase the functions of daily life. a. neuroscientist b. clinical psychologist c. occupational therapist d. neurochemist : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 47. According to David Chalmers, consciousness is ____. a. a fundamental property of matter b. not necessary for brain functioning c. easy to observe d. independent of the brain : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Apply REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 48. Someone who investigates how the functioning of the brain and other organs influences behavior is most likely to be called a ____. a. sociobiologist b. neuropsychologist c. behavioral neuroscientist d. comparative psychologist : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 49. A neuropsychologist ____. a. has an M.D. and specializes in the treatment of brain damage b. conducts research on animal behavior c. is more often a teacher than a practitioner d. tests the abilities and disabilities of people with brain damage : d DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 50. A comparative psychologist ____. a. compares the reactions different people have in similar situations b. considers the evolutionary histories of different species and their behaviors c. compares nervous system responses of different people d. helps people with emotional distress : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 51. Which specialist is most likely to work with people with brain damage? a. comparative psychologist b. biopsychologist c. neuropsychologist d. psychobiologist : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 52. A psychiatrist is most likely to ____. a. help people with emotional distress b. perform brain surgery c. treat people with brain damage d. relate behaviors to the functions they have served in their evolutionary past : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 53. According to Tinbergen, the argument that humans are essentially different from all other animals and that the gap between humans and animals can never be bridged ____. a. assumes that it will be futile even to search for animal roots b. is essential to the meaningful study of human neuropsychology c. is the only scientifically-defensible point of view d. will stimulate research into the relationship between the mind and brain : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Career Opportunities LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 54. Perception occurs in ____. a. waves b. the brain c. receptors d. transducers : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.01 - Briefly state the mind–brain problem and contrast monism with dualism. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 55. Nearly all neuroscientists and philosophers support the position of ____. a. monism b. exceptionalism c. dualism d. relativism : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.02 - List three general points that are important to remember from this text. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 56. What idea states that minds are one type of substance and matter, like the brain, is another type of substance? a. dualism b. monism c. exceptionalism d. relativism : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.02 - List three general points that are important to remember from this text. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 57. Who is most associated with the idea that consciousness should be regarded as a fundamental property? a. Chalmers b. Descartes c. Leibniz d. Tinbergen : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.01 - Briefly state the mind–brain problem and contrast monism with dualism. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 58. After much analysis, string theorists in the 1980s concluded that _____. a. the universe could have taken a vast number of forms b. while other universes are possible, they are highly improbable c. the universe can only take a small number of forms d. ours is likely the only universe that could ever exist : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.01 - Briefly state the mind–brain problem and contrast monism with dualism. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 59. To propose that consciousness is a fundamental property essentially means that ____. a. we know it to be the fundamental unit of life b. we know it to be transient, and occurring at random times c. we have given up on explaining it d. we have a better understanding of how it occurs in the brain : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.01 - Briefly state the mind–brain problem and contrast monism with dualism. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 60. Neurons ____. a. convey messages to glands b. have an oval or round shape c. are typically very large d. are usually smaller than glia : a DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 61. Which type of psychologist would be most likely to study which brain regions and neurotransmitter systems were involved with schizophrenia? a. clinical b. biological c. comparative d. developmental : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 62. When asked why a particular behavior occurs, people typically rely on ____ explanations. a. functional b. commonsense c. alternative d. cost-benefit : b DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 63. A(n) ____ explanation relies on activity of the brain and other organs. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. physiological d. functional : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 64. The view of the brain from below is called the ____ view. a. anterior b. linear c. ventral d. dorsal : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: The Biological Approach to Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues 65. A(n) ____ explanation of the brain invokes the chemical reactions that enable hormones to influence brain activity. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. physiological d. functional : c DIFFICULTY: Bloom’s: Understand REFERENCES: Biological Explanations of Behavior LEARNING OBJECTIVES: KALA.BIOP.16.INT.01.03 - Give examples of physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior. TOPICS: INT.1 Overview and Major Issues KEYWORDS: New 66. A(n) ____ explanation of the brain invokes the routes by which brain activity controls muscle contractions. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. physiological d. functional 67. The term ontogenetic comes from the Greek word that relating to the ____. a. origin of being b. cause of actions c. meaning of life d. goals of actions 68. A(n) ____ explanation of the brain might invoke the gradual maturation of the frontal parts of the brain. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. physiological d. functional 69. A(n) ____ explanation reconstructs the ancestral history of a behavior or structure. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. physiological d. functional 70. What type of explanations call attention to behavioral similarities among related species? a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. physiological d. functional 71. A(n) ____ explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. physiological d. functional 72. A(n) ____ is most likely to have a PhD and study the anatomy, biochemistry, or physiology of the nervous system. a. psychiatrist b. neuroscientist c. neurologist d. neurosurgeon 73. Most ____ have a mixture of psychological and medical training and work in hospitals and clinics. a. psychophysiologists b. neurochemists c. neuropsychologists d. physiological psychologists 74. A researcher who uses scans of brain anatomy or activity, to analyze and explore how people with autism spectrum disorders process facial expressions is most likely a(n) ____. a. cognitive neuroscientist b. comparative psychologist c. psychophysiologist d. neurologist 75. Mr. Spindero periodically visits a hospital clinic where he takes various paper and pencil tests that document the progression of his dementia. A(n) ____ is most likely to be administering the tests. a. neurologist b. psychologist c. neuropsychologist d. cognitive neuroscientist 76. A(n) ____ research might relate the behaviors of different species to their habitats. a. evolutionary psychologist b. cognitive neuroscientist c. behavioral neuroscientist d. comparative psychologist 77. A(n) ____ therapist is most likely to provide exercise and other treatments to help people with muscle or nerve problems, pain, or anything else that impairs movement. a. cognitive b. behavioral c. occupational d. physical 78. A(n) ____ people improve their ability to perform functions of daily life. a. cognitive b. behavioral c. occupational d. physical 79. Following her stroke, Mrs. Hakim, who has limited use of her right arm, will likely work with a(n) ____ therapist who helps her relearn how to dress herself. a. cognitive b. behavioral c. occupational d. physical 80. After nine-year-old Shane suffers a traumatic brain injury when he was hit by a car accident, a(n) ____ therapist helps him learn how to walk again. a. cognitive b. behavioral c. developmental d. physical 81. Why does a clinical psychologist need to have a working understanding of neuroscience? a. To make informed decisions about which medications to prescribe b. To make more accurate diagnoses c. To better communicate with clients’ physicians d. To better handle insurance approvals for treatment 82. What discipline deals exclusively with nervous system disorders? a. clinical psychology b. neurology c. psychiatry d. occupational therapy 83. The activities of a social worker are most likely to overlap with those of a(n) ____. a. clinical psychologist b. neurologist c. psychiatrist d. occupational therapist 84. A(n) _____ is most likely to be concerned with selective pressures. a. neurosurgeon b. clinical psychologist c. clinical social worker d. evolutionary psychologist 85. A(n) ____ is most likely to be involved in measuring heart rate, breathing rate, brain waves, and other body processes. a. occupational therapist b. neuropsychologist c. psychiatric social worker d. psychophysiologist 86. Casey believes that there are no circumstances under which animal research is acceptable. Casey is best described as a(n) ____. a. minimalist b. exclusionist c. abolitionist d. inclusionist 87. Minimalists believe that ____. a. all research should be done on animals b. some animal research is acceptable, but not all c. no animal research should be conducted d. researchers should use only small animals 88. Researchers who use animals in their research are most likely to agree, in principle, with ____. a. minimalists b. exclusionists c. abolitionists d. inclusionists 89. In the context of the “three Rs” of animal research, refinement refers to ____. a. reducing pain and discomfort b. recognizing potential confounders c. reusing prior research analysis d. recombining effective statistical tests 90. In the context of the “three Rs” of animal research, replacement refers to ____. a. avoiding the use of irreversible procedures b. identifying less painful procedures c. using computer models if possible d. ensuring that animals are only used in one experiment 91. In the context of the “three Rs” of animal research, reduction refers to minimizing ____. a. the number of animals used b. the amount of pain c. alternative explanations d. ethical concerns 92. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees must include a(n) ____. a. community member b. abolitionist c. animal rights activist d. minimalist 93. The extreme polarization that characterizes the debate about the use of animals in research ____. a. interferes with open-minded contemplation of the difficult issues b. has led to universities opening animal laboratories to the public c. has led to the development of compromises that are acceptable to most d. creates an atmosphere that favors useful, spirited debate 94. The ____ is responsible for the review of proposed experiments. a. Institutional Review Board b. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee c. Committee for the Protection of Animal Rights d. Office of Research Participants 95. If you are interested in clinical psychology, school psychology, social work, physical therapy, or another field that is on the outskirts of neuroscience, which resource would be a good choice? a. The Journal of Neuroscience b. Neurology c. Scientific American Mind d. Nature Neuroscience 96. If you are interested in clinical psychology, school psychology, social work, physical therapy, or another field that is on the outskirts of neuroscience, which resource would be a good choice? a. Archives of General Psychiatry b. Neurology c. The Journal of Neuroscience d. The Dana Foundation website 97. An evolutionary psychologist would likely be most interested in studying _____. a. altruistic behavior of meerkats b. cardiovascular function across species c. anatomy of the rat brain d. neurotransmitters in primates 98. Which question is suggestive of the so-called mind-body problem? a. What genes are involved in schizophrenia? b. How did altruism develop? c. How do intellectual disabilities affect people? d. Why are certain types of brain activity conscious? 99. The characteristic features of an animal are almost always ____. a. fundamental properties b. modifications of something found in the ancestral species c. highly variable across species d. the result of genetic drift 100. A dominant male with many offspring is best described as spreading ____. a. only those genes that helped him become dominant b. genes that are directly related to his becoming dominant c. all of his genes, including genes that are irrelevant to dominance d. genes that are directly or indirectly related to dominance 101. The observation that zone-tailed hawks resemble vultures in both appearance and flight behavior, their prey disregard them, enabling the hawks to pick up easy meals is most suggestive of a(n) ____ approach. a. ontogenetic b. evolutionary c. functional d. physiological 102. Evolutionary explanations call attention to ____. a. behavioral differences among related species b. behavioral similarities among related species c. behavioral similarities among distantly-related species d. behavioral similarities among unrelated species 103. Who proposed that biological explanations of behavior fall into four categories? a. Chalmers b. Descartes c. Leibniz d. Tinbergen 104. How do most biological psychologists feel regarding the use of animals in research? a. They believe that any animal has the same rights as any human. b. They will avoid using painful procedures, unless they will directly benefit the animal. c. They are working to replace all animal experimentation with computer simulations. d. They use animals only if the potential benefits to humans outweigh the costs to the animals. 105. The function of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee is to ____. a. evaluate veterinarians who provide care to laboratory animals b. determine whether research is merely for the benefit of humans c. evaluate proposed experiments to ensure that they minimize pain and discomfort d. provide food and water for lab animals, and keep cages clean Essay 106. What is monism? 107. List and explain the “three Rs” of animal research. 108. Discuss the four biological explanations of behavior. 109. Discuss David Chalmers’s approach to consciousness and identify the problems associated with it. 110. Describe the minimalist position on animal research.

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