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Sociology Chapter 9. All Answers Correct

Multiple Choice 1. What term refers to a group of people who share a set of physical characteristics and a bloodline? a. race b. genes c. genetics d. heredity DIF: Easy REF: Page 308 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 2. Although race has no deterministic, biological basis, it still: a. influences heredity. b. has important social influence. c. has genetic importance. d. has physical importance. DIF: Easy REF: Pages 307–308 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 3. When the term race comes up in America today, we usually think in two colors: a. black and brown b. black and white c. red and black d. brown and white DIF: Easy REF: Page 309 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 4. The concept of race: a. has changed over time. b. is biological. c. is stable and constant. d. all of the above. DIF: Easy REF: Pages 310–317 TOP: Applied OBJ: Definition of Race 5. In ancient Egypt, physical markers were linked to: a. status. b. geography. c. genes. d. ethnicity. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 310 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 6. Hippocrates believed that physical markers such as skin color were the result of: a. genetics. b. social status. c. different environmental factors. d. geography. DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 310–311 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 7. Phrenology refers to: a. variations in body size. b. the differences in head formation. c. athletic ability. d. the study of bones. DIF: Easy REF: Page 312 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 8. Based on measurements of skull bumps, Blumenbach came up with five principal varieties of: a. humans. b. intelligence. c. athletic ability. d. ethnicity. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 312 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 9. Which of the five varieties of humans did Blumenbach decide were the superlatives of the races based on their excellent skull qualities? a. Ethiopians b. Hispanics c. Asians d. Caucasians DIF: Easy REF: Page 312 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 10. Under Johann Caspar Lavater’s theory of ____________, people with light skin were thought to have higher intellect. a. physiognomy b. intelligence c. civic values d. biological superiority DIF: Difficult REF: Page 312 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 11. Reverend Samuel Stanhope Smith proposed that dark skin should be thought of as different levels of suntan or: a. a universal freckle. b. a godly distinction. c. dark beauties. d. environmentally induced. DIF: Easy REF: Page 313 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 12. Because the German Nazis could not find a reliable marker to identify Jews, the Jews were forced to: a. wear a yellow Star of David. b. identify themselves as Jewish immediately in conversation. c. use their birth names. d. live in certain parts of the country. DIF: Easy REF: Page 316 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 13. The one-drop rule asserts that just “one drop” of black blood makes: a. a person biracial. b. a person black. c. a person more criminal. d. a person less intelligent. DIF: Easy REF: Page 316 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 14. Although we now know all humans are the same species, there is still an underlying belief that we can trace specific traits through: a. our ethnicity. b. our place of birth. c. our race. d. our lineage. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 317 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 15. The genetic variation that corresponds with geographic origins is much ____________ than people commonly believe. a. more random b. more important c. less d. more DIF: Easy REF: Page 317 TOP: Applied OBJ: Definition of Race 16. What is the group that displays no physical distinctions from Japanese citizens but is believed by the Japanese to be a descendant of a less-human race than the Japanese nation as a whole? a. Malayans b. Burakumin c. Filipinos d. Chinese DIF: Difficult REF: Page 318 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 17. The comparison between the Burakumin and the Japanese shows that race is: a. an important marker. b. significant for intelligence. c. not just about physical or biological differences. d. more important than culture. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 318 TOP: Applied OBJ: Definition of Race 18. Aristotle’s principle of civic association was that the true test of a person’s worth was in what they did, not who they were. All people were included in this except: a. brown-skinned people. b. women. c. whites. d. nonwhites. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 311 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 19. Johann Caspar Lavater suggested that outside appearances were connected to inner virtues. He tended to value: a. women over men. b. light skin over darker skin. c. dark skin over lighter skin. d. men over women. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 312 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 20. An 1851 excerpt from Harper’s Weekly magazine describes a certain racial group as law-breaking, idle, thriftless, poor, and barbarian. What group is this excerpt describing? a. Irish b. African Americans c. Italians d. Jews DIF: Easy REF: Page 308 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 21. What term refers to the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits? a. blackism b. racism c. whitism d. ethnism DIF: Easy REF: Page 309 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 22. Modern racial thinking developed in the mid-seventeenth century in parallel with three global changes. Which of the following is NOT one of these global changes? a. the Protestant Reformation in Europe b. the Age of Exploration c. the rise of capitalism d. scientific innovations DIF: Difficult REF: Page 311 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 23. European Christians and scientists interpreted the curse Noah put on his son Ham to mean that Ham: a. was the original black man. b. was no longer going to be king. c. never had descendants. d. was perverted. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 311 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 24. In the nineteenth century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism to: a. neo-racism. b. modern racism. c. scientific racism. d. biological racism. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 311 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 25. The General Social Survey asked respondents why, on average, African Americans have worse jobs, income, and housing than white people. Nearly half of the respondents believed that blacks: a. have been socially repressed. b. don’t have the motivation to pull themselves out of poverty. c. have less inborn abilities to learn. d. prefer to live that way. DIF: Easy REF: Pages 317–318 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 26. Ethnocentrism classified nonwhites as abnormal and inferior to help justify: a. racism. b. imperalism. c. cultural relativism. d. war. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 312 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ethnocentrism 27. Comte de Buffon’s classification schemes assumed that anyone who differed from what group was abnormal? a. American b. African c. European d. British DIF: Moderate REF: Page 312 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ethnocentrism 28. Ontological equality is the notion that: a. God made stratification among people. b. whites are the dominant group. c. lighter skin is superior to darker skin. d. all people are created equal under God. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 313 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ontological Equality 29. What group believed that humans were one species, united under God? a. Darwinists b. polygenists c. monogenists d. Catholics DIF: Moderate REF: Page 314 TOP: Factual OBJ: Monogenists versus Polygenists 30. Which group believed that different races were distinct species? a. Darwinists b. polygenists c. monogenists d. Catholics DIF: Moderate REF: Page 314 TOP: Factual OBJ: Monogenists versus Polygenists 31. Which group did Darwin side with, claiming that the notion of different species of humans was absurd? a. Protestants b. monogenists c. polygenists d. Catholics DIF: Easy REF: Page 314 TOP: Factual OBJ: Monogenists versus Polygenists 32. Social Darwinism was the evolutionary notion of: a. race. b. survival of the fittest. c. domination. d. genetics. DIF: Easy REF: Page 313 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Darwinism 33. What term refers to a pseudoscience of genetic lines and the inheritable traits they pass on from generation to generation? a. eugenics b. biogenics c. race relations d. sociogenics DIF: Easy REF: Page 314 TOP: Factual OBJ: Eugenics 34. Eugenics literally means: a. “well-born.” b. “well-bred.” c. “high-status.” d. “royalty.” DIF: Moderate REF: Page 314 TOP: Factual OBJ: Eugenics 35. What group, led by Sir Francis Galton, believed that negative traits such as criminality were passed through bloodlines and could be bred out? a. sociologists b. geneticists c. biologists d. eugenicists DIF: Difficult REF: Page 314 TOP: Factual OBJ: Eugenics 36. H. H. Goddard used his tests on what group to generalize about immigrant populations? a. immigrants at Ellis Island b. immigrants who worked in factories c. immigrants on ships to America d. factory managers DIF: Easy REF: Pages 314–315 TOP: Factual OBJ: Eugenics 37. During the 1950s the United States began to focus more on cultural theories of race and ethnicity, thus rejecting: a. biblical theories of race. b. racialization. c. miscegenation. d. eugenics. DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 313–315 TOP: Factual OBJ: Eugenics 38. Nativists believed that restricting the immigration of certain groups would: a. create tension in ethnic communities. b. protect the nation. c. harm international relations. d. eliminate racism. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 315 TOP: Factual OBJ: Nativism 39. Miscegenation refers to: a. segregation. b. incest. c. interracial marriage. d. mixed races. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 316 TOP: Factual OBJ: Miscegenation 40. Muslims in America have undergone what scholars refer to as the formation of a new racial identity, in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people, or: a. ethnicization. b. racism. c. ethnism. d. racialization. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 319 TOP: Applied OBJ: Racialization 41. Most Arabs in the United States are not Muslim but ____________, and about 20% of U.S. Muslims are ____________. a. Catholic; Asian b. Islamic; Latino c. Christian; African American d. Protestant; East Indian DIF: Difficult REF: Page 319 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racialization 42. Some Muslims have been in North America since the seventeenth century, when they were transported from: a. Africa as slaves. b. South America as immigrants. c. China as indentured servants. d. the West Indies. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 319 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racialization 43. About 35% of Muslims worldwide were born in: a. Iran. b. Afghanistan. c. Canada. d. America. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 320 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racialization 44. Muslims have recently (since 9/11) undergone a new racial identity, from being formally unnoticed as a group to being singled out for more discrimination. This is known as: a. racialization. b. prejudice. c. whiteness. d. primordialism. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 319 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racialization 45. The opening story (Chapter 9) about the author kidnapping a child to become his new baby sister shows: a. how racist his parents were. b. that racism is innate. c. the social impact of race. d. how badly he wanted a sister. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 307 TOP: Applied OBJ: Social Construction of Race 46. Race is not a fixed biological or natural reality; rather, it is: a. genetic. b. biologically invented. c. an environmental reality. d. a social construction. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 308 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Construction of Race 47. America’s first naturalization law, passed in 1790, granted citizenship to: a. anyone that had fought in the Revolutionary War. b. free white people. c. all white people. d. former British citizens. DIF: Easy REF: Page 309 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Construction of Race 48. Which act formalized the exclusive definition of whiteness by imposing immigration restrictions based on a national origins quota system that limited the yearly number of immigrants from each country? a. Ethnic Act of 1900 b. White Ethnic Act of 1876 c. Immigration Act of 1924 d. Race Act of 1850 DIF: Moderate REF: Page 309 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Construction of Race 49. Who was one of the first sociologists to point out the importance of culture in determining race? a. Robert Park b. Charles Darwin c. Anthony Giddens d. Ann Oakley DIF: Difficult REF: Page 316 TOP: Factual OBJ: Social Construction of Race 50. What allows one to identify with a nationality without the rights and duties of a citizen? a. genetic identity b. race c. ethnicity d. heritage DIF: Easy REF: Page 321 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ethnicity 51. The differences between race and ethnicity underscore the privileged positions of ____________ in America, who have the freedom to pick and choose their identities and freely show their ethnic backgrounds. a. whites b. blacks c. Hispanics d. Asians DIF: Moderate REF: Page 321 TOP: Applied OBJ: Ethnicity 52. Compared with 11% of the U.S. population as a whole, around 33% of Native Americans die before age: a. 45. b. 50. c. 55. d. 60. DIF: Easy REF: Page 324 TOP: Factual OBJ: Native Americans 53. What minority group has the highest percentage of males in prison? a. whites b. blacks c. Native Americans d. Hispanics DIF: Easy REF: Page 325 TOP: Factual OBJ: African Americans 54. Afro-Caribbeans such as Cubans, Haitians, and Jamaicans resent being unilaterally categorized as African American, because these immigrant groups: a. are indentured servants. b. have a unique culture and language. c. live in various parts of the country. d. don’t understand the American culture. DIF: Easy REF: Page 325 TOP: Factual OBJ: African Americans 55. The majority of the Latinos in the United States come from: a. Puerto Rico. b. Cuba. c. Mexico. d. the Dominican Republic. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 325 TOP: Factual OBJ: Latinos 56. The majority of Latinos in the United States have immigrated here within the last ____________ years. a. 2 b. 10 c. 40 d. 80 DIF: Moderate REF: Page 326 TOP: Factual OBJ: Latinos 57. Mexicans are generally classified as a physical type that combines Native American and European traits and referred to as: a. mestizos. b. hybrids. c. half-breeds. d. biracial. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 326 TOP: Factual OBJ: Latinos 58. In 1907, the United States barred immigration from what country, because its people were seen as a threat to the American-born labor force? a. Poland b. China c. Ireland d. Mexico DIF: Easy REF: Page 327 TOP: Factual OBJ: Asian Americans 59. Asians have been applauded for their smooth assimilation and are referred to as: a. the model minority. b. more intelligent. c. entrepreneurs. d. small businessmen. DIF: Easy REF: Page 327 TOP: Factual OBJ: Asian Americans 60. In one study of television portrayals of Arabs, researchers found basic myths that continue to surround this group. Which of the following is NOT one of these myths? a. They are fabulously wealthy. b. They are uncivilized and barbaric. c. They don’t assimilate. d. They revel in acts of terrorism. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 328 TOP: Factual OBJ: Middle Eastern Americans 61. Robert Park’s model explains the universally progressive pattern in which immigrants arrive, settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogeneous country. His model is called: a. immigration patterns. b. assimilation progress. c. the geographic immigrant process. d. straight-line assimilation. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 331 TOP: Factual OBJ: Straight-Line Assimilation 62. Clifford Geertz used what term to describe the fact that ethnic ties remained even after people assimilated? a. primordialism b. ethnocentrism c. neoassimilation d. ethnicism DIF: Difficult REF: Page 332 TOP: Factual OBJ: Primordialism 63. The 1896 Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson upheld: a. equality. b. ethnic cleansing. c. integration. d. segregation. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 316 TOP: Factual OBJ: Segregation 64. A society is pluralistic if no one ethnic group is statistically: a. in the minority. b. equal to another. c. the dominant group in government. d. in the majority. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 333 TOP: Factual OBJ: Pluralism 65. The legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity is referred to as: a. segregation. b. separatism. c. individuality. d. pluralism. DIF: Easy REF: Page 333 TOP: Factual OBJ: Segregation 66. The Supreme Court’s landmark 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education struck down what doctrine? a. separate but equal b. integration c. segregation of churches d. inequality in jobs DIF: Easy REF: Page 335 TOP: Factual OBJ: Segregation 67. The black ghetto was manufactured by whites through a set of deliberate, conscious practices. Which of the following is NOT one of the practices mentioned in your book? a. property owners signed secret agreements promising to exclude blacks b. high homeowner association dues c. if blacks moved in, whites would move out d. redlining DIF: Easy REF: Page 337 TOP: Factual OBJ: Discrimination 68. Japanese internment camps resulted in a. greater wealth for Chinese Americans. b. a decrease in wealth for white Americans. c. greater wealth for white Americans. d. more Chinese immigrants entering the United States. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 347 TOP: Factual OBJ: Discrimination 69. Thoughts and feelings (usually negative) about an ethnic or racial group are referred to as: a. subaltern. b. discrimination. c. modern racism. d. prejudice. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 343 TOP: Factual OBJ: Prejudice 70. Prejudice is to discrimination as thinking is to: a. manifesting. b. developing. c. doing. d. being. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 343 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Prejudice 71. What is the term that refers to the mass killing of a particular population? a. extinction b. extermination c. expulsion d. genocide DIF: Easy REF: Page 339 TOP: Factual OBJ: Genocide 72. Which of the following is not a response to oppression? a. passing b. prejudice c. acceptance d. withdrawal DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 342–343 TOP: Applied OBJ: Minority–Majority Relations 73. Oftentimes African Americans turn to ____________ when they are attempting to be accepted by the dominant group. This means acting differently with the dominant group. a. collective resistance b. subalterning c. redlining d. code-switching DIF: Moderate REF: Page 343 TOP: Factual OBJ: Acceptance versus Resistance 74. What term refers to the more overt form of resistance through a movement such as revolution or genocide or through nonviolent protest? a. collective resistance b. group protest c. individual alliance d. mutual resistance DIF: Moderate REF: Page 343 TOP: Factual OBJ: Collective Resistance 75. During the mid-twentieth century in the United States, many blacks moved north to excape Jim Crow laws in the rural south. This resulted in: a. an immediate improvement in the lives of African Americans. b. movement of more whites to the South. c. competition for housing and employment in the North, resulting in violent clashes between whites and blacks. d. many blacks “passing” as white. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 342 TOP: Factual OBJ: Withdrawal Completion 1. ____________ refers to a group of people who share a set of (usually physical) characteristics. DIF: Easy REF: Page 308 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 2. When the term race comes up in America today, we usually think in two colors: ____________ and ____________. lack, white DIF: Easy REF: Page 309 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 3. In ancient Egypt, physical markers were linked to ____________. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 310 TOP: Factual OBJ: Definition of Race 4. The belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits is called ____________. DIF: Easy REF: Page 309 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 5. Europeans used the story of Ham in the Bible to justify ____________. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 311 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 6. ____________ is the judgment of other groups by one’s own standards and values. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 312 TOP: Factual OBJ: Ethnocentrism 7. ____________ was based on the belief that getting rid of Jews was preferable to converting them. DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 315–316 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racism 8. In the United States, ____________ are often identified with terrorism and assigned to a category as the dangerous “other,” seen as separate from, and inferior and hostile to, Christians and democracy. DIF: Easy REF: Page 319 TOP: Factual OBJ: Racialization 9. ____________ way of life was completely obliterated by European settlers, from the obviously vital land that was taken from them, to their communal infrastructure. DIF: Easy REF: Page 323 TOP: Factual OBJ: Native Americans 10. The first black people in North America arrived as ____________, who were contracted by white colonialists for set periods. DIF: Easy REF: Page 324 TOP: Factual OBJ: African Americans 11. ____________ is a very broad term, encompassing diverse and sometimes clashing peoples from China, Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia. DIF: Easy REF: Page 327 TOP: Factual OBJ: Asian Americans 12. Asian Americans have been called the ____________. 327 TOP: Factual OBJ: Asian Americans 13. ____________ come from places as diverse as the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, Iran, Iraq, and the Palestinian territories. DIF: Easy REF: Page 328 TOP: Factual BJ: Middle Eastern Americans 14. Peggy McIntosh argues that ____________ is an “invisible knapsack of privileges” that puts white people at an advantage, just as racism places nonwhites at a disadvantage. DIF: Easy REF: Page 329 TOP: Factual OBJ: Whiteness 15. White supremacist David Duke left his position as the grand wizard of the Knights of the ____________ and founded the National Association for the Advancement of White People. DIF: Easy REF: Page 330 TOP: Factual OBJ: Whiteness 16. Robert Park’s ____________ theory suggests that when people immigrate to the United States they experience assimilation in a rather linear manner, resulting in complete acceptance by the dominant group. DIF: Difficult REF: Page 331 TOP: Factual OBJ: Straight-Line Assimilation 17. ____________ is probably the most truly pluralist country. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 333 TOP: Factual OBJ: Pluralism 18. A society with a low degree of assimilation and several distinct ethnic or racial groups is said to be ____________. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 333 TOP: Factual OBJ: Pluralism 19. In the 1954 landmark case ____________, the Supreme Court’s majority opinion that legally segregated schools were unequal struck down the separate but equal doctrine. rown v. Board of Education DIF: Easy REF: Page 335 TOP: Factual OBJ: Segregation 20. The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) instituted the practice of ____________, which declared inner-city, black neighborhoods too much of a liability and ineligible for aid. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 338 TOP: Factual OBJ: Redlining 21. While ____________ % of whites are in poverty, approximately ____________ % of blacks live in poverty. ANS: 8; 24 DIF: Difficult REF: Page 341 TOP: Factual OBJ: Poverty 22. Rwanda experienced ____________, the mass killing of a particular population, which was supported by the government and media, and turned neighbors into murderers overnight. DIF: Easy REF: Page 339 TOP: Factual OBJ: Genocide 23. The ____________ of the mid-twentieth century in the United States occurred when blacks moved from the rural South to the industrialized urban North in search of jobs and equality. DIF: Moderate REF: Page 342 TOP: Factual OBJ: Withdrawal Essay 1. Explain the concept of race from a sociological perspective. Discuss the racial distinction with regard to the Anglo-Saxons in the mid-1800s. 2. Describe the definitions of race in ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, and early Christendom. How do they compare to modern racial thinking among the European colonizers up to the present day? DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 310–311 TOP: Conceptual OBJ: Definition of Race 3. What was the premise behind eugenics? How did eugenics explain race? What is the problem with this explanation? Give examples. 4. Discuss the differences between race and ethnicity. How does symbolic ethnicity fit into explanations of ethnicity? How do the differences between race and ethnicity underscore the privileged position of whites in America? 5. Your text mentions five different ethnic groups: Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and Middle Easterners. Discuss the diverse experiences of each group. 6. How has whiteness evolved since the 1800s? Why is whiteness referred to as an “invisible knapsack of privileges”? What are some of the privileges whites experience? 7. Your text introduced the concepts of whiteness and the browning of America. What effect do you think the presence of one will have on the other? In other words, as American “browns,” will the degree of “whiteness” remain the same or how will it change? 8. Your text mentions forms that minority–majority group relations can take: assimilation, pluralism, segregation, and conflict. Discuss each form and give examples. 9. Anthony Marx (1998) has suggested that the repulsion that Americans felt for Nazi Germany and the persecution of Jews during World War II was one of the forces behind the desegregation movement in the 1950s. Explain. 10. Your text notes three ways by which groups respond to domination: withdrawal, passing, and acceptance versus resistance. Discuss each one with examples. ANS: 1 11. Explain the difference between prejudice and discrimination. Describe Merton’s diagram for explaining the intersections of prejudice and discrimination. Give examples of each cell. 12. What is the cause of equity inequality? Include blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in your explanation. 13. In the past several decades, we have witnessed the narrowing of the income gap between nonwhites and whites. Nonwhites’ incomes are getting closer to whites’. How does this affect wealth? What are the influencial factors involved?

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