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Louisiana State University - SOCIOLOGY 2001 > Latest Chapter 2 test bank >Already Graded A

Multiple Choice 1. The two broad approaches social scientists use to gather data about the social world are: a. deductive and inductive. b. qualitative and quantitative. c. implicit and explicit. d. correlational and causal. 2. A sociologist’s subject matter presents some difficult research problems of a kind that natural scientists rarely have to deal with. Which of the following does NOT describe such a problem? a. A sociologists is part of the very subject he or she is studying. b. For ethical reasons, it is not permissible to do particular kinds of studies on people. c. It is possible to have completely controlled experiments to delineate cause and effect relationships. d. The causes of social behavior are usually multiple, complex, and intricate. 3. Norm is interested in whether pet owners are more likely than those who do not own pets to have healthier lifestyles (excercise regularly, drink moderately, refrain from nicotine use, etc.). By comparing the numbers he gathers on both groups, Norm will most likely be using what particular research method? a. quantitative b. inductive c. deductive d. qualitative 4. The research method that uses statistical analysis to describe the social world is: a. qualitative research. b. quantitative research. c. deductive research. d. inductive research. 5. What type of research describes people’s behavior in rich detail and focuses on the meanings people give to their actions? a. inductive research b. qualitative research c. quantitative research d. deductive research 6. Elizabeth would like to conduct a study to determine how women define spousal abuse and the meanings they attach to their abuse. What research method will Elizabeth most likely use? a. quantitative b. inductive c. qualitative d. deductive 7. If Kate begins her research with a theory, then forms hypotheses and makes some observations, what method is she using? a. independent b. dependent c. inductive d. deductive 8. Which of the following describes the deductive approach to research? a. A researcher makes some observations, and based on these observations develops a theory. b. A researcher develops some hypotheses to explain a correlation observed between two variables. c. A researcher starts with a theory, forms hypotheses, makes observations, and then analyzes the data. d. A researcher develops some hypotheses that lead to a theory about human behavior. 9. Which approach to sociological research starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory? a. statistical b. observational c. inductive d. deductive 10. Paula begins to notice there are patterns to where people sit on the bus, and that these patterns differ depending on whether the rider is male or female. Based on these observations she generates larger ideas (theories) about why men and women differ. This is an example of which kind of research approach? a. deductive b. inductive c. quantitative d. a case study 11. Which of the following is an example of a correlation? a. People who work harder have higher income. b. People with better health work harder. c. The more income a person makes, the easier it is to retire. d. People with higher levels of income tend to enjoy better overall health. 12. A correlation is: a. a change in one variable that is caused by another. b. a simultaneous change in two variables. c. a relationship between two moderating variables. d. a relationship between cause and effect. 13. When one factor is said to influence another factor, we refer to this as: a. correlation. b. association. c. causation. d. mediation. 14. All of the following are factors needed to establish causality EXCEPT: a. correlation. b. time order. c. ruling out alternative explanations. d. panel study results. 15. Which of the following is more difficult to do in social science research? a. to say that two things change at the same time b. to establish that something is the cause of something else c. to argue that two things are related d. to propose a relationship between two variables 16. Martine is a sociologist who thinks that A is causing B, when in fact, B is causing A. She needs to be careful to not make the mistake known as: a. operationalization. b. reverse causality. c. deduction. d. induction. 17. In establishing causation, it helps to know which variable precedes the other in time. If not, it is easy to make a mistake involving: a. reverse causality. b. spurious causality. c. alternative explanations. d. time order. 18. Andy hypothesized that the stress created during economic downturns would increase the probablility of spousal abuse. Stress would be considered the ____________ variable, and spousal abuse would be considered the ____________ variable. a. dependent; independent b. key; affected c. moderating; dependent d. independent; dependent 19. Professor Clayton hypothesizes that travel to other countries increases students’ abilities to do well in advanced sociology classes. Which variable is the independent variable? a. Professor Clayton b. travel to other countries c. other cultures d. students’ abilities 20. Factors that affect the relationship between an independent and dependent variable are known as: a. operationalized variables. b. moderating variables. c. mediating variables. d. spurious variables. 21. A variable that is thought to be influenced by another variable is known as the: a. dependent variable b. independent variable c. key independent variable d. spurious variable 22. A variable that is thought to cause a change in another variable is called the: a. dependent variable. b. independent variable. c. spurious variable. d. intervening variable. 23. A testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables is called a(n): a. operationalization. b. reliability. c. hypothesis. d. natural experiment. 24. To define a term (or variable) in such a way so that it can be examined and measured is the process known as: a. survey construction. b. hypothesizing. c. causal connection. d. operationalization. 25. If Jose’s study measures religiosity by the number of hours people spend in organized religous activities, while Deidra’s study measures religiosity by whether people agree or disagree that religion plays an important part in their life, Jose and Deidra: a. will not be able to compare their research findings. b. operationalize their concepts of religion differently. c. have different hypotheses about the role of religion in their study. d. have very different independent and dependent variables. 26. When a researcher is successful at measuring what (s)he intends to measure, this is called: a. validity. b. reliability. c. response rate. d. generalizability. 27. In her study, Darby is using church membership as an indicator of how religious a person is. She discovers that some “very religious” people rarely attend church. Darby may conclude that: a. religiosity is a dependent variable. b. her measure of religiosity lacks validity. c. church attendance is a reliable indicator. d. there is reverse causality between church attendance and religion. 28. A standard yardstick measures 36 inches, but Sarah is using a “faulty” yardstick (one that measures 40 inches long) to measure the campers in her youth group. Sarah will not get a(n) ____________ indication of height, but she will have a(n) ____________ measure of height. a. reliable; valid b. consistent; accurate c. valid; reliable d. accurate; generalizable 29. The likelihood that a researcher will obtain the same result using the same measures the next time she or he tests a hypothesis is: a. validity. b. reliability. c. response rate. d. generalizability. 30. The more consistent the results given by repeated measurements, the higher the ____________ of the measurement procedure (and vice versa). a. reliability b. validity c. efficiency d. responsiveness 31. The extent to which a researcher can claim that his or her findings explain a larger population than was studied is known as: a. validity. b. reliability. c. responsiveness. d. generalizability. 32. Based on the results of a representative sample of students at his high school, Jack claims that “the majority of high school students today believe premarital sex is wrong.” Jack may be “speaking beyond his data” since the results he obtained may not easily translate to the attitudes of other high school students across the United States. This concern addresses the study’s: a. validity. b. generalizability. c. reliability. d. reflexivity. 33. If Sandra wants to generalize the findings of her study to another (possibly larger) population, it is important that the people in her study be: a. randomly selected from the populaton she wants to generalize to. b. varied in their characteristics so that there will be no problems. c. aware of her intentions, so the study will be valid and reliable. d. representative of the group(s) she wants to generalize to. 34. Because they are an accessible population, sociologists sometimes use undergraduate students in their research. In relation to the concept of generalizability in science, this tendency could represent a potential defect in research because: a. college undergraduates do not have the right to refuse without suffering negative consequences. b. the experiences of college undergraduates do not provide a legitimate empirical resource. c. college undergraduates are not a subset of the general population. d. college undergraduates are not typical of the public at large. 35. Ethnographer Mitchell Duneier spent five years hanging out with booksellers on the streets of Manhattan. His role as both researcher and participant provides a great example of the importance of: a. maintaining firm boundaries between the role of researcher and the role of participant. b. staying true to the ethical principles of the scientific method in our research. c. critically assessing how our role as reseachers may affect the people we study. d. maintaining distance from those we study so that our results are not contaminated. 36. What is the meaning of the term “white coat” effects in social research? a. the structuring of a research project to maintain total anonymity b. the impact researchers may have on the people/relationships they study c. the change in subject’s behavior when researchers wear white coats d. when researchers “put on the charm” to get compliance from their subjects 37. If Juanita practices ____________ in her research, she carefully considers how her role as researcher may affect those that she studies (the researched). a. reflexivity b. selective attention c. empathy d. common sense 38. Which of the following is true regarding value judgments made by sociologists conducting research? a. It is possible for a sociologist to remain value-free. b. It is not important for a sociologist to remain value-free. c. Value judgments and subjectivity lead to better research. d. Every sociologist makes some value judgments, even about the problems and topics he or she chooses to study. 39. Perhaps the most important outcome of feminist methodology is that: a. it provides new and unique techniques for gathering data. b. the focus on women’s experiences, in addition to men’s experiences, has increased the generalizability of the research. c. it has created new jobs for women in research. d. it prioritizes women and girls over men and boys. 40. Sandra Harding’s (1987) three elements of feminist research include all of the following EXCEPT: a. treating women’s experiences as legitimate in the field of sociology, which has always been male-dominated. b. engaging in social science that may lead to policy changes. c. prioritizing women’s and girls’ experiences over men’s and boys’ experiences. d. taking into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter being studied. 41. One of the positive outcomes of sociology’s long-term male dominance is: a. the evolution of feminist methodology to complement it and add to the scientific accumulation of knowledge. b. that sociology is now a female-dominated profession. c. that male sociologists have now turned all of their attention to creating equality in the discipline. d. that sociology remains a male-dominated field. 42. Positivist sociologists tend to use which of the following types of measures? a. quantitative b. qualitative c. spurious d. invalid 43. Interpretive sociologists examine meanings attached to behaviors. This leads them to use which of the following measures most commonly? a. quantitative b. qualitative c. spurious d. invalid 44. Sandra is doing research on cheating among students at Duke University. The student body at Duke will serve as her: a. sample. b. population. c. random sample. d. fieldwork. 45. Charles is a sociologist studying a population of gay fathers in the United States. He interviews 200 men in his data collection. These 200 men comprise what researchers call a: a. census. b. selection bias. c. sample. d. participant observation. 46. The subset of a population from which a researcher collects data is known as a: a. census. b. selection bias. c. sample. d. survey. 47. A(n) ____________ is an in-depth look at a specific phenomenon or situation in a particular social setting, and is common in qualitative research. a. experiment. b. case study. c. survey. d. participant observation. 48. If a sociologist studies one high school in a study of the effectiveness of its Parent-Teacher Association, he or she is using which of the following research methods? a. an experiment b. a case study c. a panel study d. content analysis 49. All of the following are strengths of the case study method EXCEPT that it is: a. useful for obtaining very detailed information. b. a useful starting point for exploring new topics. c. useful for creating large-scale generalizations. d. useful for understanding causal mechanisms indicated in large-scale surveys. 50. Although qualitative studies are rich in detail and offer an in-depth look at a particular population and/or phenomenon, due to their limited scope they sometimes suffer from low: a. validity. b. generalizability. c. representativeness. d. reliability. 51. Mitchell Duneier’s study of homeless men on New York City’s Sixth Avenue involved hanging out with his research subjects to collect data. This type of methodology is known as: a. participant observation. b. a case study. c. a survey. d. an experiment. 52. Which of the following might be an advantage of participant observation research? a. The researcher has considerable control over the conditions of the research. b. The researcher can uncover what people “do” rather than simply what they say they “do.” c. The research itself is often limited in scope—which is important to sociological research. d. It is a useful method for studying large and diverse populations. 53. Georgia has volunteered at the local crisis center. While she is volunteering, she is given permission to “gather data” and ask the women about the circumstances surrounding their abuse. What method will Georgia most likely use? a. experiment b. survey c. interviews d. content analysis 54. There are advantages and disadvantages to different interview techniques. What might be an advantage that structured interviews have over unstructured (open-ended) interviews? a. It is easier to ask more personal questions. b. It is easier to make careful tabulations and comparisons of answers. c. It is easier to get more detailed information. d. It is easier to develop a rapport with the respondent. 55. An ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from research respondents is known as: a. an experiment. b. participant observation. c. a case study. d. a survey. 56. Many colleges and universities have gone to an online system for evaluating teaching effectiveness. Although this process guarantees anonymity, the completion rate (percentage of students who fill out evaluations) has dropped. Which of the following is NOT a significant problem with low response rates in this situation? a. Students who complete the survey may be different in significant ways from those that do not. b. Students who do not complete the evaluations may end up taking the wrong classes. c. Only students who like their instructors may complete the evaluations. d. Instructors may not get accurate feedback about their teaching methods. 57. The main reason that achieving high response rates and limiting selection bias are so important is that they lead to: a. increasing generalizability. b. decreasing generalizability. c. increasing validity. d. decreasing validity. 58. The General Social Survey (GSS) is replicated yearly with a new sample of 2,000 respondents. This is an example of: a. an experiment. b. participant observation. c. a repeated cross-sectional survey. d. a longitudinal study. 59. A type of longitudinal study in which the same sample of respondents is tracked over a long period of time is known as: a. an experiment. b. participant observation. c. the historical method. d. a panel study. 60. ____________ is probably the best method available to the social scientist interested in collecting original data and for describing a population too large to observe directly. a. Survey research b. Content analysis c. Comparative research d. An experiment 61. A potential shortcoming of survey research is that surveys: a. tend to focus more on what people do than what they say. b. rely on people’s honesty and willingness to cooperate. c. cannot reflect the total population. d. cannot be used on large populations. 62. Which of the following methods involves collecting data from written reports or other artifacts in order to discover patterns in behavior/attitudes dating to an earlier time period? a. experiments b. audit studies c. panel surveys d. historical methods 63. Jackson is using newspaper articles dating from the early 1950s to study unofficial attitudes toward working women post-WWII. Jackson is using what research method? a. experimental b. content analysis c. comparative research d. historical methods 64. Rogers Brubaker (1992) studied the notions of citizen and statehood in both France and Germany. His method of research is known as: a. comparative research. b. a case study. c. an experiment. d. content analysis. 65. The general approach to comparative research is to: a. study a total population or census. b. find cases that match on every variable. c. use a panel study approach only. d. find cases that match on many potentially relevant dimensions, yet vary on just one. 66. Comparative research usually involves studying which of the following? a. two cultures that have virtually nothing in common, in order to determine why they are so different b. two cultures that have a good number of things in common but differ in one important dimension—this dimension becomes the subject of the study c. several groups within a particular culture in order to identify how and why they differ from the dominant culture d. a dominant and subordinate group in a particular culture to determine the ways in which their activities continue to reproduce inequalities 67. Perhaps the most difficult method to apply to the social sciences, as compared with laboratory-based natural sciences, is/are: a. surveys. b. experimental methods. c. historical methods. d. content analysis. 68. LeeAnn is a graduate student in sociology who is studying media depictions of gun violence in popular films such as Rambo and Scarface. Her choice of methods is known as: a. an audit study. b. a panel study. c. content analysis. d. surveys. 69. Harry’s study compared how the posts of “men seeking women” differed from the posts of “women seeking men” on Craigslist. What research method was Harry using when he compared how often men and women mentioned particular characteristics (e.g., attactive, sexy, athletic, professional, educated, etc.)? a. historical methods b. comparative research c. content analysis d. interviews 70. All of the following are described as golden rules of ethical conduct in social research EXCEPT: a. do no harm. b. informed consent. c. never debrief. d. voluntary participation. 71. Research subjects have a right to know that they are participating in a study and what the study consists of. This is known as: a. involuntary participation. b. informed consent. c. manifest content. d. latent content. 72. A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as: a. panel populations. b. census populations. c. protected populations. d. total populations. 73. If a field researcher cannot reveal that a study is being done for fear that this revelation might significantly affect the social processes being studied, (s)he is finding out that: a. it is sometimes difficult to make a distinction between legitimate investigation and unjustified intrusion. b. it is sometimes difficult to follow the norms of voluntary participation and informed consent. c. in order to get valid data, sociologists must learn to deemphasize ethics in their research. d. it is sometimes difficult for sociologists to do no harm to the people they study. 74. Sometimes a researcher may find it necessary to go against the ethical norms of informed consent and voluntary participation. Which of the following would NOT be considered one of these times? a. when it would be impossible or unfeasible to obtain permission b. when the researcher feels his or her presence may disrupt the behavior under investigation c. when the researcher’s subjects are underage, incarcerated, or pregnant d. when it is thought that voluntary participation could introduce bias into the investigation 75. Social research aimed to influence public policy and society as a whole is referred to as: a. feminist sociology. b. historical sociology. c. private sociology. d. public sociology.

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