Psychology 321 |Washington State University - Pullman campus: All Correct 100%
What disorder might represent an extreme or exaggerated version of traits associated with â€œmarching to a different drummerâ€ or acting original and somewhat idiosyncratically?
Individuals with amnesia are typically unable to provide valid self-reports of personality.
Which theorist would most likely make the statement that stress is valuable for optimal psychological development?
Hedonism provides the ________ necessary for learning and behavior to occur.
According to Dollard and Miller, a state of psychological tension that feels good when it is reduced is called
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of idiographic goals?
The most important limitation of the strict behaviorist approaches to personality psychology is that they
What seems to be the best way to raise self-esteem?
Punishment is always more effective when it immediately follows the behavior than when punishment is delayed.
According to the test, what is the best approach to test contructions:
The effects of irrelevant influences that might lessen your ability to see the trait or state you are trying to measure are called
According to the text, the goal of a scientific education is:
The MMPI is a broad band personality inventory that yields S data
How would a situationist interpret a correlation of around .30?
The terms expectancy effects and behavioral confirmation refer to the same psychological phenomenon
Personality judgment can occur in applied setting without the use of objective tests
Behavioral coherence is associated with being a good target for persoanlity judgment
The MMPI was designed
Which of the following is NOT likely to undermine reliability in a measure
Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five
A test that is reliable may not be valid
Egon Brunswik's concept that research should be designed to sample across all of the domains (e.g. people, methods, and stimuli) to which the investigator wishes to apply the results is referred to as
Funder and Ozer (1983) examined the results of three classic social psychological studies. They converted the results of effect sizes and found that the effects were equivalent to correlations in the range of ________ (in absolute value)
What term describes computer-assisted methods to measure thoughts and feelings that occur during normal daily activities
______ data derive from the researchers direct observation of what the subject does
The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) was designed
Which of the following behaviors would be the easiest to predict accurately
Citizenship behaviors at work is predicted by which trait
The Thematic Appreciation Test and the Rorschach test elicit ________ data
Answers to projective tests such as the Rorschach ink blots are considered B data
The most important and generally useful way to enhance reliability is
According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, damage to the right frontal lobes impairs one's _______, which then impairs one's______
In a heated argument with his current girlfriend, Tyler accidently calls her by the name of his ex-girlfriend. This is an example of a(n)
According to Freud, boys and girls figure out what it means to be male and female
Some research suggests that the relationship between testosterone and physical aggression holds only or most strongly for
The most frequently used defense mechanism is probably
The last stage in the life span for Erikson is generatively versus stagnation
Which of the following would NOT be a pronounced symptom in a patient who suffers frontal lobe damage
Most modern therapists practice strict Freudian psychoanalysis
Horney felt that when women experience penis envy, it symbolizes their
The heritability of moderate mental retardation is higher than the heritability of severe mental retardation
Which Big Five domain capture a tendency toward general psychopathology
Mark claims that it is okay for him to take supplies from his employer because he uses some of them to do office work at home. Mark is using the defense mechanism of
According to Jeffrey Gray's theory, dopamine is associated with what reward-seeking systems
Chris spends most of the time before his surgery calmly discussing the death rates associated with the surgery with his doctor and reading all the latest medical articles on his disease. . Freud would say that Chris is using ______ to deal with his illness
What term refers to images of very thin slices of the brain
What does the 'f' in the California F scale stand for
The assumption that everything a person does has a specific cause is called
Dennis is very attracted to his boss, Heidi. Instead of asking her out, he asks his neighbor Karen to go out with his. Dennis is _______ his feelings for his boss
A politician who supported severe efforts to restrict Internet access in his community to prevent the spread of child pornography was arrested and convicted for possession of child pornography. Which defense mechanism best accounts for this paradoxical behavior
Which factor below would be part of the so-called non-shared environment
Some researchers argue the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors might be better classified as anti-neurotics rather than anti-depressants
Umwelt includes bodily sensation of pleasure and pain
Which of the following is NOT one of the diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder
What is the most recent edition of the DSM
According to Dollard and Miller, in order for a reward to be reinforcing and produce behavior change, the reward must
Individuals who suffer from avoidant personality disorder actually have deep cravings for social contact and acceptance
Individuals with amnesia are _______, which suggests that accurate self-knowledge ________ memories of specific life events
All of the personality approaches are both right and wrong in some respects
Losing face is a primary danger in what type of culture
Short-term memory is limited to seven plus or minus two chunks of information
Someone who consistently expects criticism, contempt, and rejection from others is likely to have which personality disorder
Negative media portrayals of particular groups can be linked with less self-efficacy
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with schizoid personality disorders
Which class of drugs has shown some success as a treatment for OCPD
According to Funder's classification scheme, what four disorders are characterized by patterns of behavior that interfere with social relationships and can make an individual difficult to be around
Each personality paradigm effectively addresses its own key concerns
Repeating the items on a grocery list such as "chesse, bread, soda, canned soup, salad dressing, and paper napkins" over and over again in your mind is an example of what process
A description such as "emotional hemophilia" applies most accurately to which personality disorder
Answers to the questions on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory are considered S-Data
I data are superior to S data when considering reports of self-esteem
S data have face validity
Introspection is an example of what type of method?
The most important advantage of B data is that they are based on
Dr. Garcia wants to measure the earliest autobiographical memories of the participants in her project. She would most likely obtain _____ data
There is nothing wrong with assuming that extraversion is defined as the attribute that extraversion assessments measure
Data supporting the validity of projective tests is widespread
Eliminating the use of personality tests in employment screening will
What of the following is NOT a basic method for constructing objective personality tests?
In a study of social expectancies, Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid (1977) found that if male participants were shown a photograph of an attractive woman and told they would be interacting with her by telephone, the female participant they actually spoke with was
Shy people fear social interactions and often feel lonely. They are typically perceived by others as
Judgment of you personality by others
It appears that there are gender differences in the attributed that make someone a good judge of personality
According to the text, what trait refers to individual differences in the willingness to engage in sexual relations with minimal acquaintanceship?
The Q-sort is the only way to get reliable S data using the many trait approach
According to Jack Block, ______gets people into trouble, but_______gets people out of trouble.
Research on______addressed important questions concerning the way that inner reality and the private self-relate to external reality and the self as presented to other
People who adjust their behavior to best fit the situation are called __________â€™ and people whose behavior is guided by their personality are called _______.
What is the best summary of the current state of knowledge about personality types
Which correlates of delay of gratification were common in both girls and boys?
What is another name for ego control?
The Big Six model is also called the HEXACO
Behavioral genetics, like trait psychology, focuses on aspects of personality that _______, whereas evolutionary psychology more typically focuses on aspects of personality that _______.
The approach that attempts to explain how individuals differences in behavior (ie personality traits) are shared by biological relatives is called
Imagine a situation in which food and water were scares and very few children received adequare nutritions. What will happen to the heritability coeffiecent for height
A woman who mates with an unstable but attractive man seems to follow a different reproductive strategy than most other women. This idea is called
In the past, some psychologists have concluded that shared family environments have little or no effect on personality development. Recent research has cast doubt on such conclusions by finding that:
Evolutionary psychology has tried to account for individual differences by asserting that all of the following EXCEPT
Freud believed that humor was the method through which the ego vents ordinarily forbidden thoughts or urges
Freud thought that parents should refuse to provide infants comfort and security to avoid fixation at the oral stage
If a woman pursed an acting career because she craved attention and flattery, Freud would probably say that she
Persistent denial is not often a sign of serious psychopathology
According to psychoanalytic theory, no action is ever random
Trisha, who is on a diet, passes a bakery and see a chocolate cake in the window. She immediately wants to go in and get the cake, but realizes that eating the cake will only destroy her diet. When she then feels guilty for even thinking about breaking her diet, Trisha is experiencing
The superego is concerned with right and wrong
Toddlers are largely concerned with the industry versus inferiority psychosocial conflict
The Myers-Briggs Type indicator is a measure of Adlerâ€™s style of life
According to Weston, all of the following studies might be described as psychoanalytic research EXCEPT
Which of the following is generally TRUE about neo-Freudians?
Most neo-Freudians differ from Freud in three major respects. Which of the following is NOT one of these differences
Paul is always concerned about how he appears to others and thus wears a carefully chosen public â€œfaceâ€ in every situation. According to Jung, Paul has
The Buddhist idea of anatta referes to the impermanence of all things
Which Buddhist term refers to the idea that all things are in flux and impermanent?
Which Buddhist term refers to the idea that all things are in flux and impermanent?
The Buddhist alternative to existential anguish, forlornness, and despair is
According to Sartre, the existential challenge is
Nirvana leads to a pleasant albeit selfless state
The humanist psychologist Carl Rodgers and Abraham Maslow took basic existential assumptions and added that the assumption that
Humanistic psychologists believe that people are basically good
According to Sarte, angst can be analyzed by three separate sensations. What are they?
According to Carl Rodgers, a person can only be understood from the persepective of the entire panorama of their conscious experience or what he called their
Believing that others value you based only on intelligence, success, or attractiveness can lead to
On average, Americans are fonder of tranquility than Chinese individuals
The tendency to see members of your own group as very different from one another but the members of groups to which you do not belong as very similar to each other is called
There are about 557 trait words in the Chinese language
Studies of cross-cultural gender differences in Big Five tend to find
It has been suggested than the only way that psychologists can address the generalizability issue is
Compared to collectivist cultures, members of individualist cultures are more likely to
According to the ecological approach, differences in ecology generate difference in _____, which in turn shapes ______.
Both punishment and reinforcement can be used to get someone to stop performing a behavior
what learning process may explain why some addicts are more likely to overdose in new settings as opposed to familiar settings?
According to Rotter, locus of control is analogous to
Barbara thinks that Joe will go out on a date with her if she ever get up the courage to ask him. Barbaraâ€™s perception of the likelihood that Joe will accept reflects her _____, whereas her doubts about her ability to ask him out reflects her ______.
Julian Rooterâ€™s social learning theory focuses primarily on
There is some evidence that habituation to suffering might make people less likely to help or assist others in need
Mark thinks that if her askes for a $50-a-week raise, he will definitely get it. Expectancy value theory would predict that mark will ask for a ______ a week raise and classic behaviorism would predict that he will ask for a _____ a week raise
I am preparing for a test in psychology, and I tell you, â€œIm sure that Im going to fail. Im going to study all night, and Ill just be happy with anything higher than a Câ€. You are preparing for the same test and you say, â€œOh Come on. Weve been going to lecture and keeping up with the reading
People can talk much more easily about explicit goal than implicit goals
Which of the following is a characteristic of the rational system
People seem to know that it is irrational to be more upset by running 30 minutes late and missing a plane by the a minute (ie the plane departure was delayed) as opposedto running 30 minutes late missing a plane by 30 minutes (i.e., the plane took off as scheduled)
What theorists is most closely identified with cognitive- experiential self-theory?
What of the following is NOT one of the primary goals proposed by David McClelland?
What idiographic goal term refers to long-term goals that organize broad areas of a persons life
Behavioral consistency is positively associated with ______ in American culture, whereas behavior consistency is ________ in Korean culture
Rehearsal is sufficient to move information into long-term memory
Behavioral consistency seems to be unrelated to measure of mental health among Koreans
According to previous research about cultural differences in person-based descirptions, how might someone in India describe an individual
Imagine that you are trying to teach a classroom of personality students how to better remember the material for an exam. What would likely be the best recommendation that you could make?
Which of the following in NOT associated with low self-esteem?
Which of the following in NOT one of the diagnostic criteria for OCPD?
Confused, delusional, and even self-destructive thinking is NOT associated with which of the following personality disorders
Which of the following is NOT one of the diagnosis criteria for narcissistic personality disorders
Females are more likely to suffer from schizoid personality disorders, whereas males are more likely to suffer from schizotypal personality disorders
An individual who consistently fears abandonment may suffer from which personality disorders
When researchers say â€œpreferences need no inferencesâ€ with respect to emotion, what are they really arguing?
Amy is a generally aggressive and hostile child. Imagine that Suzanne accidentally bumped into Amy in a crowded room. Based on theories related to priming and chronic accessibility, Amy would perceive Suzanneâ€™s bump as an ________ and likely respond with ________.
All of the following traditions strongly contributed to the understanding of personality processes EXCEPT
Essential goals that almost everyone pursues are called ________ goals.
What is likely to happen when an individual with a good relationship with his mother is exposed to the subliminal message, â€œMommy and I are oneâ€?
Emotions can be considered a kind of declarative knowledge using the language of cognitive psychology.
What dimension is not typically included in the definition of happiness used by contemporary researchers?
Someone who is attracted to exclusive social clubs because other people cannot typically join such groups exhibits a symptom of which personality disorder?
Dressing provocatively at very inappropriate times such as at a funeral might be symptomatic of which personality disorder?
Which disorder appears in the DSM Cluster B?
Which of the following is one of the diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder
What does it mean to say that certain personality disorders are ego-syntonic?
Paranoid personality disorder is more common in males than in females.
According to the DSM , which disorder is particularly difficult to assess with self-reports?
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