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Psychology 321 |Washington State University - Pullman campus: Graded A

Studies using the Q-set suggest that overcontrol might be a risk factor for depression in males but not females. Integrity tests are often used by employers in personnel selection. Researchers have proposed that self-monitoring is actually a type rather than a trait. Which of the following is NOT a dimension that would likely show differences between liberals and conservatives? Which of the Big Five traits appears to have the most inconsistency in terms of cross-cultural replication? What brain region appears to be important for the abilities to plan ahead, anticipate consequences, and to engage in moral reasoning? What brain region seems to connect the two halves of the brain? Evidence from research and from brain damage case studies suggests that the ________ is/are the location of cognitive control, serving to anticipate the future, plan for it, and regulate emotions in response to it. A low level of MAO in the blood seems to correlate with sensation seeking and criminal behavior. The only time females have testosterone in their bodies is when they are pregnant with male offspring. Nerve fibers that connect nerves to each other are called Which brain region secretes several hormones and is located just above the roof of the mouth? Drugs like Prozac and Paxil work on the dopamine system. One problem researchers experience when attempting to directly link testosterone to aggression and sexuality is that Before brain surgery, Elliot was a good father and held a responsible job. After removal of portions of his frontal lobe, Elliot’s personality changed in what way? As a result of Timothy’s genes, he went through puberty later than his peers. Because he was much smaller than other boys, they tended to pick on him, and he fought back to protect himself. As a young adult, Timothy is more aggressive than his peers. This scenario illustrates that his aggression is Kara is placing a personal ad in the local paper. According to evolutionary predictions about mate selection, what will she most likely mention when describing herself? The prevalence for the short allele of 5-HTTT is higher in Caucasians than in Japanese populations. Half-siblings share about how much genetic material on average? Which piece of evidence was NOT discussed as providing support for Bem’s theory? What gene seems to be related to the trait of sensation seeking or novelty seeking? The short allele form of 5-HTTT is thought to be the riskier form for a high level of neuroticism. A researcher who measures the extent to which genetic factors influence the trait of narcissism is taking an evolutionary approach. The point of view that scientists will be able to reduce everything about the mind to biology is called Humans share about 98 percent of their genetic material with chimpanzees. What might explain difference in heritability coefficients between twin and non-twin studies? In a successful joke, the forbidden impulse is Repression is a more complicated defense mechanism than denial. Psychoanalytic theory frequently leads to a set of hypotheses that cannot be disproved by observations. In that respect, psychoanalytic theory Which defense mechanism seems to have few negative consequences according to Freud? Sally accuses her husband of having an affair because she is secretly attracted to the next-door neighbor. Sally is likely ________ her own feelings. The ego develops during the anal stage. Strategies that help individuals cope with anxiety, guilt, and shame are called The superego uses defense mechanisms to keep impulses at bay. A moralistic church official ends up patronizing prostitutes. According to Freudian theory, this was caused by As a boy, Steve enjoyed the power he had over his friends. Later in life he became a politician who used his influence to promote social justice. This is an example of what Freud called Sophia tries to keep her distance from other people, especially her boyfriend. How might Freud explain this behavior? Psychoanalytic therapy emphasizes unconditional positive regard. According to the text, what is the psychological theme of the anal stage? The ego’s energy store is The ________ is the idea that psychic energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Trivialization is one kind of rationalization. What type of primary process thinking refers to the instance where one image represents multiple thoughts, memories, and emotions? According to psychoanalytic theory, no action is ever random. The two key dimensions of adult attachment are ambivalence about relationships and investment in relationships. In middle age, we experience the psychosocial crisis of ________, according to Erikson. Ellen is a 50-year-old woman who is raising her two grandchildren, is active in her community, and is learning how to paint. According to Erikson’s theory, Ellen has chosen Adler felt that ________ was an important motivator of human thought and behavior. Freud’s phallic stage corresponds to Erikson’s stage of Tom was a sickly child and always felt helpless. According to Adler, as an adult Tom will probably Which sequence represents the correct order for Erikson’s first three psychosocial stages? Horney’s major deviation from traditional Freudian ideas was her There is evidence that catharsis is beneficial for physical and psychological health. Jane feels inferior to the people around her, but she tries to act like she is powerful and in control. Adler would say that Jane is Some psychologists maintain that your relationships with other people are based on the images of them that you hold in your mind. Psychologists who emphasize this idea are known as ________ theorists. According to Jung, all people use all four types of thinking (rational thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting). According to Freud, when do individuals focus on enhancing society? In one study, male U.S. military veterans were asked about their past behaviors. Those with higher testosterone levels more often reported If you commit a slip of the tongue when you are tired, Freud would say that Serotonin seems to play a role in the inhibition of behavioral impulses. In psychoanalytic terms, objects are Which hormone is associated with the fight-or-flight response? Freud believed that sublimation is generally a positive process. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is What does Freud mean by fixation? Freud initially used hypnosis in therapy and later used free association According to psychoanalytic theory, ________ occurs when the mind battles itself. What behavioral genetic research finding seems to support the conclusion that the effect of growing up in the same home environment is rather minimal? Ricardo likes to drive fast cars and enjoys bungee jumping and going to noisy nightclubs. According to Eysenck’s theory, it is likely that Ricardo is a(n) ________ whose ARAS causes him to be chronically ________. According to evolutionary theory, a man’s greatest worry is that One difference between the neo-Freudians and Freud is that nearly all neo-Freudians According to the somatic marker hypothesis, specific regions of the brain store specific life memories. The approach that attempts to explain how patterns of behavior characteristic of the entire human species originated because of the survival value they had for our ancestors is called Unlike other perspectives, the psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes the importance of ________ in determining behavior. According to the text, what is one reason why psychoanalytic theory is not advancing in academic departments? Buss, Larsen, Westen, and Semmelroth make the point that the recent finding that male sexual jealousy is the leading cause of spouse battering and homicide across cultures worldwide offers suggestive evidence that Hormones carry nerve impulses across synapses Which of the following is TRUE about Freud’s description of the ego Which of the following is NOT considered to be a compelling reason to learn about Freud? The main goal of psychoanalytic therapy is According to the text, Freud was What is the technical name for drugs like Prozac Galen suggested that there were ________ basic types of personality, each linked to an excessive amount of a different ________. Sally believes that anything natural is morally acceptable. What fallacy is she committing? Research suggests that avoidant children are likely to grow up to be adults who tend to The time, place, and circumstances into which you happened to be born is called Carl Rogers maintained that the one basic tendency for humans is to Which of the following philosophers was NOT mentioned in the text as an existentialist thinker? According to George Kelly, your interpretation or theory of what the world is like is your Linda thinks that her friends will like her only if she is thin, attractive, and cheerful. Rogers would say that it is unlikely that Linda will Existentialists would say that if Donna does not worry about existential concerns but instead focuses on getting a job, obtaining material wealth, or maintaining her friendships, then she will According to Sartre, angst can be analyzed into three separate sensations. What are they? George Kelly believed that personal constructs are bipolar Kelly emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard The courage to face mortality and the apparent meaningless of life is called ________ by existential philosophers An autotelic activity The biological component of experience is called Eigenwelt. The tendency to see members of your own group as very different from one another but the members of groups to which you do not belong as very similar to each other is called the Ethnocentrism is the tendency to The individualist versus collectivist distinction is analogous to the distinction between ________ with respect to personal values About 25 percent of the population should be left-handed. Shalom Schwartz and Lilach Sagiv (1995) identified two basic dimensions that they believe organize universal values. What are those two basic dimensions? The holier-than-thou effect is most likely to occur in members from what country? Which of the following is one of the two aspects of the measure of bicultural identity integration (BII)? Individuals from which country would be the least willing to describe themselves in contradictory terms? If members of two cultures experience the same emotions, seek the same goals, and organize their thoughts in comparable ways, then the two cultures Which of the following psychologists was NOT considered a social learning theorist Expectancy value theory states that the individual will weigh both the size of the reward and the likelihood of obtaining the reward when faced with a decision. Skinner was among the first to insist that classical conditioning and operant conditioning The attempt to determine how behavior is connected to the environment is called Pavlov’s experiments on the timing of associations demonstrated that two things become associated because A ranked ordering of the behaviors that an individual might perform is called a(n) Behaviorism is concerned with ________, whereas Rotter’s social learning perspective is concerned with ________. Following Bandura, many social learning theorists agree that the important causes of behavior One advantage of behaviorism is that it is supported by objective data Individuals from which of the following countries are least likely to demonstrate consistencies in emotional experience across situations? You are only able to observe what you actually did and thought when faced with a particular dilemma. This fact creates problems for which two stages of the realistic accuracy model? Which stage of the realistic accuracy model has the most important implications for self-knowledge? According to the text, individuals from India used personality trait terms to describe their acquaintances ________ percent of the time, whereas individuals from America used personality trait terms ________ percent of the time. According to the text, a study found that acquaintances’ judgments of assertiveness did not predict observed behavior in the laboratory, whereas self-judgments predicted observed behavior in the laboratory. According to William James, the ________ does the thinking and sensing, whereas the ________ is the object of thoughts about the self. What is the name of the cognitive structure that contains the declarative self? According to self-discrepancy theory, what emotion arises from discrepancies between ideal and actual selves? Judging your own personality is typically much easier than judging others’ personalities. What state government set up a task force to enhance the self-esteem of its residents? Which of the following statements best describes the state of the evidence regarding individualistic versus collectivistic cultures and the sense of self? Sam is schematic for agreeableness. What will happen when he is asked to make judgments about whether he is friendly, kind, and modest? Self knowledge can be divided into ________ knowledge and ________ knowledge. William James believed that our ________ includes ________. When people think about their own behavior, they tend to believe that According to the text, individuals in India never use personality trait terms to describe their acquaintances. Which theorist developed the concept of personal constructs? Which is NOT one of the central intrinsic goals featured in self-determination theory? The self-esteem of individuals with narcissistic personality disorder is believed to be fragile or brittle. Which philosophical idea explains the learning process? An exceedingly strange individual who believes that she has direct contact with extraterrestrial life might have which personality disorder? An individual who truly believes that he or she should be the first person rescued from a burning building exhibits a symptom of which personality disorder? A person who habitually avoids social interaction but is unaware of his shyness is said to have ________ knowledge about the self. The Rep test is used to evaluate whether an individual is a fully functioning person Several studies have examined whether certain Big Five traits apply universally across cultures. As it stands, which trait does NOT appear to be truly universal? According to the textbook, the root of depression is ________, whereas the root of anxiety is ________. People often report two or more personal strivings that are inconsistent with each other. What term describes the term that non-psychoanalytic researchers sometimes use to refer to the unconscious? The idea that, in time, you can get used to almost anything is associated with which learning mechanism(s)? Men are more likely than women to have narcissistic personality disorder. An individual who likes to watch emotional movies and has extreme reactions to the tragic deaths of celebrities would likely score high on what personality dimension? Someone who is a workaholic might just suffer from which personality disorder? Bandura’s concept of efficacy is similar to what Rotter called Which of the following is NOT one of the diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder? Existentialists believed that science, technology, and philosophy had lost touch with human experience.

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