Psychology 321 |Washington State University - Pullman campus: Grade A
Early research on the good judge of personality indicated that the good judge was
According to Gordon Allport's article in the Funder and Ozer reader,
One result of the person-situation debate was that many social psychologists concluded that personality did not really exist.
According to the text, children who were able to delay gratification the longest were also likely to be described as
If Dr. Oâ€™Connell wants to learn about Laura, why might Dr. Oâ€™Connell want to avoid using S data?
________ data are the most frequently used basis for personality assessment.
The process whereby an individual seeks out completely objective information about herself/himself is called self-verification.
If a personality psychologist wants to know the actual answer to a personality test question then the participantâ€™s response is considered S data.
I data essentially measure
Reliability and validity are both aspects of a broader concept called
Personality assessment would be relevant to which of the following constructs?
The ancient Romans believed that someone with an excess of blood tended to be cheerful, ruddy, and robust.
Sally is a strong proponent of the lexical hypothesis. Where would she likely begin her search for the essential traits of personality?
According to the sociometer hypothesis, depression evolved as a way to monitor how much we are accepted by others.
An element of Freudian theory that has been maintained in modern attachment theory and research is that
Brian and Matt have both just flunked out of college. Brian is sure he did not flunk and that he really is going to graduate. Matt simply refuses to think about what just happened. Brian is using the defense mechanism of ________ and Matt is using ________.
What part of the human brain seems to be the most distinct from the brains of nonhuman animals?
What are the three types of attachment in children?
Two-year-old Jonathan knows he is not allowed to have a second piece of candy. When his mother is distracted, he takes another piece out of the candy jar, just to see if he can get away with it. Jonathan is in the ________ stage of development.
One criticism of psychoanalytic theory is that Freud considered the development of women to be
Which of the following chemicals breaks down certain neurotransmitters?
The fact that the same environment affects different individuals in different ways illustrates the principle of gene-environment interactions.
What term did Freud use to describe the psychological respite or time out that occurs before the genital stage?
In the movie, The Science of Sex Appeal, the "golden ratio" refers to
The largest and most important level of consciousness in Freudâ€™s topographic model of the mind is the
What might be the evolutionary function of crying according to recent research described in the text?
Criticisms of psychoanalysis often involve personal assaults on Freudâ€™s ethics and personal life.
Freud believed that ________ memory lapses reveal unconscious conflicts.
Why did Freud believe that psychotherapy was beneficial?
The works of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo were, according to Freud, examples of
Given Snyderâ€™s description of self-monitoring, you would expect someone who is a low in self-monitor to be ________ than a high self-monitor.
The doctrine of opposites holds that the ego must be as strong as the superego.
Negative emotionality in Tellegenâ€™s three-factor model is closest to which trait in Eysenckâ€™s model?
In the Hatsa tribe in Kenya,
Erich Fromm coined the term ________ to describe individuals who frequently turn their wills over to a higher external authority but who enjoy the experience of giving orders to those who are below them in the hierarchy.
Researcher Karl Grammar has identified a human pheromone that women usually don't like,
Joe is a 15-year-old who abuses drugs on a regular basis. Research using the Q-sort suggests that as a child, Joe probably would have been described as
________ are the result of unsuccessful attempts by the ego and superego to control forbidden impulses.
All of the following are objections to evolutionary theorizing EXCEPT:
Trisha, who is on a diet, passes a bakery and sees a chocolate cake in the window. She immediately wants to go in and get the cake, but then realizes that eating the cake will only destroy her diet. When she then feels guilty for even thinking about breaking her diet, Trisha is experiencing
According to Eysenck, psychoticism is a blend of aggressiveness, creativeness, and impulsiveness.
Current evidence suggests that Eysenckâ€™s biological theory of extraversion is about half right. Which part of the theory has received support?
The object relations theorist Melanie Klein suggests that important love relationships are mixed with emotions such as envy, fear, and guilt. People react to these emotions by
According to the text, one of the purposes of the DSM is to provide psychiatrists and clinical psychologists with an official diagnosis for insurance purposes.
A person with a judgment goal will respond to failure with a(n) ________ pattern of behavior.
Severe psychopathologies such as schizophrenia appear on which axis of the DSM ?
All individuals have the same construals of the world.
What are the two basic dimensions of the emotional circumplex model proposed by Averill?
The American South has a separate â€œculture of honor,â€ distinct from the rest of the United States, which requires members to be more tolerant of insults.
________ occurs when a child picks up the cultural influences of the place where she or he grows up.
The ________ approach focuses on individual differences that make every person unique.
According to the textbook, the ought self resembles Jeffrey Grayâ€™s ________ system, whereas the ideal self resembles Grayâ€™s ________ system.
There are actually multiple ways to structure an introduction to personality psychology.
The ________ approach focuses on rewards and punishment and how behavior is a function of the situation.
Utilitarianism, a social philosophy, claims that
Humans are the only animals that learn by observing others.
In Triandisâ€™s model, the distinctive tasks a culture needs to accomplish and the physical layout and resources of its land are called the cultureâ€™s
Mrs. Garcia often invites her family and friends to her house for lunches and parties. She is also involved with the people in her church group and in the Parent-Teacher Association at her childâ€™s school. According to McClellandâ€™s view of motivations, Mrs. Garcia is high in ________ motivation.
Women in the United States are not more collectivist than men.
Imagine that you are participating in a psychology experiment. The experimenter asks you to take a bite of chocolate and to describe your experience of the chocolateâ€”its tastes, its texture, its feel on your tongue, and so on. You would be involved in which method of psychological research?
A strong, consistent, and stable tendency to experience positive and energizing emotions is the fundamental feature of what trait?
The ________ approach focuses on moment-to-moment conscious experience, free will, and the ability to choose important aspects of oneâ€™s reality.
The philosophical belief called ________ claims that people learn in order to seek pleasure and to avoid pain.
A utilitarian always values happiness over freedom.
Sharon believes that intelligence and ability are innate and you cannot do anything to change them. Sharon has a(n) ________ theory of ability.
Your expectations about sequences of events that should occur in certain situations are called cognitive
According to the text, Canadians who failed an experimental task subsequently ________ on a second task, whereas Japanese participants who failed an experimental task ________.
Researchers have found that the Big Five personality factors can be identified cross-culturally if one allows for some variation of the specific traits that make up each of the Big Five. This finding is closely related to the idea(s) of ________ in the comparative cultural approach.
Procedural self-knowledge does NOT include
Even amoebas and crayfish can learn habituation.
According to the theory surrounding the Big Five, what term describes the generalized scripts that are produced by the Big Five traits?
Dependent personality disorder is more common in men than women.
Some research suggests that pessimism might prove more adaptive than optimism in
According to Triandis, ________ societies assume that all persons are essentially equal.
According to Carl Rogers you can become a ________ only if you experience ________ from important others in your life.
According to the text, you should judge an approach to studying personality by which of the following criteria?
Which of the following is NOT a major achievement of the learning approaches to personality?
According to the text, which of the following is considered to have an individualist-horizontal society?
Psychometricians assume that construct of intelligence is demonstrated through responses to an IQ test.
The fact that life outcomes are multi-determined is the biggest disadvantage of L data.
The Binomial Effect Size Display is a method for illustrating
Daily diary reports can be considered ________ data.
In a priming study, participants solved puzzles that included words such as gray , wise , retired , and Florida ..... The observation of participantsâ€™ speed of walking would be considered ________ data.
According to Cronbach and Meehlâ€™s (1955) terminology, psychological attributes such as intelligence and sociability are examples of ________, whereas an IQ test and Extraversion questionnaire are both examples of specific tests or measurements.
To assess the personality traits of a group of 5-year-olds, researchers use a puppet inventory in which children pick the puppet that best matches their personality. This is an example of ________ data.
If a psychologist describes a research result as statistically significant, what does the psychologist typically mean?
In current psychological research, men are more likely to participate in studies than women.
The fact that behavior is frequently determined by multiple causes presents the most significant disadvantage for ________ data.
When gathering data or clues about personality, the best policy is
Which of the following is an example of L data?
A major advantage of S data is that
Situationism is the position that
The trait approach is based on empirical research
According to situationists, the upper limit of personality coefficients is estimated as
The arguments in Mischelâ€™s Personality and Assessment concerning the ability of traits to predict behavior were based on
Why do inventories derived from the empirical method sometimes have items that seem objectionable to test takers?
According to the text, which projective test appears to have produced evidence that comes close to establishing its validity?
One response to Mischelâ€™s critique asserts that a fair review of the research on the predictability of behavior from personality traits indicates that
Personality judgment can occur in applied settings without the use of objective tests.
What term refers to personality inventories that are designed to measure a wide range of traits?
One study reported that the correlation between one scoring system for the Rorschach inkblots and mental health was about .33.
According to the book Personality and Assessment , a correlation of .30 is impressive.
According to Kluckhohn and Murray, â€œEvery man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man.â€ Which section of this quote most closely reflects what trait psychologists study?
As described in the text, according to some researchers, the TAT measures ________, whereas questionnaire-based measures predict ________.
The basis of the ________ method of test construction is to come up with items that seem directly, obviously, and logically related to what it is you wish to measure.
It is possible to evaluate personality judgments by acquaintances in basically the same ways that all personality tests are evaluated.
The observation, â€œIf it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it is probably a duck,â€ illustrates the method of
Accuracy in personality judgment fails only when there are breakdowns in at least two of the stages in the Realistic Accuracy Model.
Sam argues that all interpretations of reality are equally accurate. What philosophical position is Sam advocating?
Men are extremely poor at judging the sociosexuality of women.
Music preferences seem to reflect personality characteristics.
Judgments of your personality by others
What is the best description of the acquaintanceship effect
Doug has known Dan for over 20 years. Jim has only known Dan since he joined Jimâ€™s department at Acme Advertising Agency two months ago.... if both Doug and Jim are asked to predict how Dan will behave during a presentation at work next week, whose predictions will be more accurate?
What does recent research suggest about the validity of first impressions?
Participants in a recent study were shown composite faces from targets that scored extremely low or extremely high on personality dimensions and then asked to judge the target. Which two traits had the highest levels of accuracy?
Which of the following traits would be hardest to judge?
I data are
What is the minimum number of informants that Funder tries to obtain for each person in a study?
A recent review of the entire literature on social psychology concluded that the situational effect was about
According to the text, which of the following is NOT one of the conditions that must hold for an S-data personality test to work?
If there is a positive correlation between extraversion and risk taking, then the
What is the ultimate criterion for judging a measure of personality?
How long was Mischelâ€™s review of the personality literature in Personality and Assessment ?
Personality judgment can occur in applied settings without the use of objective tests.
Researchers know a great deal about the characteristics of good judges of personality.
An important aspect of the definition of personality is its relative consistency across time and situations.
According to the text, what is the best approach to test construction?
A projective tests yields what kind of data?
Mood researchers are less concerned with validity than trait researchers.
Not all items on objective tests are absolutely objective.
The judgments that others make of your personality affect your opportunities and expectancies. Thus, these judgments have
A researcher asks parents to report on the personality characteristics of their children. This is an example of ________ data.
....For your final version of the test, you decide to keep only the 15 items that the depressed and nondepressed groups answered differently. You are using a(n) ________ method of test construction.
Which design is best suited for addressing the third variable problem?
If you were shown an inkblot and asked to describe what you saw, you would be taking the
Robert is a stable, well-adjusted person. His behavior is fairly consistent and predictable. Essentially, with Robert, â€œwhat you see is what you get.â€ Robert would most likely be
What is the correct definition of the p-value?
An IQ test yields what kind of data?
Women seem to have a difficult time judging the sociosexuality of men.
Someone who is ________ is likely to express their personality consistently from one situation to the next.
The fact that much of modern empirical research in psychology has been based on white, middle-class college sophomores may reduce the ________ of psychological research.
One objection to the use of vocational interest tests is that these tests
According to the text, the purpose of personality traits is to predict
What are the Big Three traits according to Hans Eysenck?
The rank order stability of personality is highest in which of the following periods of development?
Which Big Five domain captures a tendency to experience negative emotions?
Which trait seems to show the strongest and most noticeable mean-level increase from adolescence to adulthood?
Sally is seriously depressed at age 18. Research using the Q-sort suggests that as a child, Sally probably would have been described as
According to the text, tests of conscientiousness seem to predict ________ better than ________.
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