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Psychology 321 |Washington State University: Grade 100%

The superego’s main function is to mediate between the id’s impulses and the ego’s sense of morality. What is a common first reaction to the diagnosis of a fatal illness? The defense mechanism of ________ keeps forbidden thoughts, feelings, and impulses out of awareness by replacing them with their opposites. When you deal with an unpleasant or threatening feeling by turning it into a more objective thought, you use Terror management theory is concerned with anxiety related to threats of modern-day terrorism. John Bowlby was the earliest psychoanalyst to develop play therapy. The psychological goal of attachment is Research suggests that anxious-ambivalent children are relatively likely to grow up to be adults who tend to Many neo-Freudians preserve Freud’s spirit in their writings but reinterpret his original ideas. In Jungian terms, the recurring images repeated in dreams, myths, and literature are called Organ inferiority refers to a physical malady. In Erikson’s view, important aspects of psychological development Which of the following concepts is NOT associated with Adler? Adler was interested in neurotic needs. Jung emphasizes spiritual and mystical issues more than Freud. What is the anima? What is the overarching principle of object relations theory? Object relations theory is still an active branch of psychoanalytic thinking. Horney felt that when women experience penis envy, it symbolizes their The internalized image of your own mother is a key archetype for Jung. Dr. Ders is a psychotherapist who emphasizes the importance of relating to others as real people who have mixtures of virtues and vices. Dr. Ders is most likely a therapist in the tradition of Jimmy is a 5-year-old boy. When his parents leave him with a babysitter, he latches onto his stuffed animal, Tim. In the terminology of the object relations theorist D. W. Winnicott, Tim is Also known as Geworfenheit, _______ refers to the time, place, and circumstances into which you happened to be born. Steven has come to terms with his mortality, accepted responsibility for his existence, and knows that he determines what happens in his life. Existentialists would say that Steven is George Kelly’s personal construct theory emphasizes that individuals The theorist ________ would likely use the metaphor “humans are scientists” to describe the nature of human psychology. Your particular experience of the world is called your George Kelly believed that to understand a person, you need to understand his or her personal construct system. This idea is known as. Which of the following virtues does NOT appear to be particularly important in Eastern traditions? Self-determination theorists believe that eudaimonia is dangerous. What aspect of human psychological functioning is of particular interest to humanistic psychologists? Sartre divided existential anxiety into aguish, fear, and forlornness. ________ is the relatively recent branch of psychology that investigates the traits, processes, and social institutions that promote a good and meaningful life. Which of the following is NOT a concern with the typical strategy used to evaluate the effects of Rogerian psychotherapy? According to the hierarchy of needs, people must feel that they belong before they can self-actualize. Nietzsche argued that the most honorable response to the dilemmas of existence is to Positive psychologists usually argue that true happiness comes from overcoming important challenges. This idea is quite similar to Sartre’s conception of Pessimism might belong in the attributes considered by positive psychologists. Research suggests individuals high in which personality attribute are most likely to experience flow? An individual who seeks to maximize gain by making the most money possible is following a satisficing goal. Which of the following ad slogans is more likely to come from an individualistic culture than from a collectivist culture? According to the text, which of the following is considered to have a collectivist-vertical society? Studies of endogenous personality descriptors in China and Spain seem to suggest that there are ________ factors in each lexicon. Research suggests that Americans may be more likely to recall the larger context of pictures compared to individuals from Japan. Singapore is both ethnically heterogeneous and culturally tight. According to the text, what term describes cultures that have only a few proscribed goals and a few ways to achieve these goals? Indians prefer to place an X next to the part of the form that does NOT apply. Psychologists who are concerned that the results of contemporary empirical research may not apply to all people everywhere are questioning the ________ of those results. If less than 2 percent of a country’s population exhibits left-handedness, then cross-cultural researchers might say that the culture is likely a(n) ________ culture. Members from which country would be most likely to self-enhance? Which value would most likely be associated with a collectivist culture? Some research suggests that thinking in Asians as opposed to Americans is more disrupted by talking. Some cross-cultural researchers compare average levels of traits across cultures. For example, Chueng and Song (1989) found that, compared to an American sample, Chinese research participants generally described themselves as higher on According to the textbook, what behavior led to a Danish mother’s arrest in New York? Judgments of cultural complexity as opposed to cultural tightness are fairly straightforward. According to the text, what two factors are hypothesized to influence whether a culture is high in tightness? Countries with low average levels of self-esteem also tend to have high rates of Bandura’s efficacy expectation is a belief about Which theorist had a substantial intellectual influence on Mischel’s ideas about the cognitive-affective personality system? Strict behaviorists believe that thoughts and emotions are important to study. Opponent processes in the body can counteract some of the effects of depressants. According to Dollard and Miller, ________ provides the motivating force for human behavior. According to Dollard and Miller, ________ drives include drives for food, water, physical comfort, sexual gratification, and so on, whereas ________ drives include drives for love, prestige, money, and power. According to Mischel, what is the most important aspect of personality and cognition? Based on recent research, what appears to be TRUE regarding people’s ability to forecast emotional reactions to major events? It has been suggested that chronic anxiety is the result of If a particular song frequently precedes your being touched by your significant other, then eventually hearing the song will make you think of being touched by him or her. This is the basic idea behind Perhaps the biggest limitation associated with the use of punishment is that When a new mobile is first hung over baby Jessica’s crib, she looks at it frequently. After several weeks pass, she spends hardly any time looking at the mobile. Jessica has become ________ to the mobile. E. L. Thorndike proposed that people learn to do things faster and more efficiently when the effects of the behavior are negative. Which of Bandura’s ideas has proven to be the most influential? According to Dollard and Miller’s approach-avoidance conflict theory, the tendency to approach a positive goal is stronger than the tendency to avoid a negative goal. Most people use punishment effectively. The Bobo doll studies of aggression demonstrated that The element of reciprocal determinism that departs most significantly from classic behaviorism is the idea that If you are frustrated because your coworker’s performance prevented you from getting the end-of-the-year bonus you expected, Dollard and Miller would predict that you respond to this frustration with A ________ is a desired end-state, and ________ are the means that the individual uses to achieve this end-state. Goals that are unique to the individuals pursuing them are called ________ goals. Which of the following is the NOT one of the basic stages of emotion? Freud’s secondary process thinking resembles Epstein’s rational system The memories of chronically hostile individuals as opposed to chronically agreeable individuals show no differences. In cognitive-experiential self theory, the ________ system dominates when you are emotional and the ________ system dominates when you are calm. A bicultural Asian American who has just been primed with the image of a dragon is more likely to interpret ambiguous symbols in what way? People with more generally negative views of others are more accurate in their person perceptions. A person with a developmental goal will most likely respond to failure with a(n) ________ pattern of behavior. What measurement instrument assesses the extent to which people are relatively defensive in their perception of potentially threatening information? Extraversion is associated with happiness but neuroticism is not related to happiness. What goal-related term describes the ongoing motivation that persists in the mind until the goal is either attained or abandoned? Steven believes that intelligence and ability can change with experience. Steven has a(n) ________ theory of ability. There is no evidence that happiness leads to good outcomes; rather, evidence suggests that happiness is a result of good outcomes. Mrs. Khoury enjoys running the office. She likes telling other employees what to do and strives to be promoted to vice president of her company. According to McClelland’s view of motivations, Mrs. Khoury is high in ________ motivation. What term refers to the idea that the concepts that have been recently activated in the mind influence one’s perceptions of the world? Research has examined the degree to which individuals’ optimistic and pessimistic strategies persist across various contexts. The results of this research suggest that Shy people might have defense mechanisms that work too well. Jack’s friends don’t think he is very smart; however, Jack thinks that he is quite intelligent. Jack would most likely be considered high in which personality dimension? According to the text, one study found the ________ measures of shyness predicted spontaneous expressions of shyness better than ________ measures of shyness. “The Little Engine that Could” provides an illustration of which self-related concept? Which stage of the realistic accuracy model has the fewest limitations when it comes to making self-judgments? Sarah moved from a small town in Ohio to New York City and has since learned a lot about herself. According to the realistic accuracy model, she has expanded the ________ stage of judgment. Which of the following is NOT one of the stages of the realistic accuracy model? What seems to be the connection between accurate self-knowledge and mental health? Self knowledge can be divided into ________ knowledge and ________ knowledge. According to self-discrepancy theory, what emotion arises from discrepancies between ought and actual selves? Procedural knowledge can be taught by reading and listening to lectures. According to self-discrepancy theory, what emotion arises from discrepancies between ideal and actual selves? What might happen to someone who is high in self-consciousness and primed with words related to stereotypes about senior citizens? The overall opinion of the self is called Which methods are appropriate for identifying self-schema? What emotions are thought to occur when a stranger harms aspects of your me-self? A person who habitually avoids social interaction but is unaware of his shyness is said to have ________ knowledge about the self According to the text, college students from individualistic cultures who failed a test of creativity ________, whereas Japanese students ________. According to recent work by Carol Dweck, what is one way to change personality? What is the name of the sixth factor that might be required to fully capture psychopathology in addition to the Big Five domains? High neuroticism is NOT associated with which personality disorder? The American Psychological Association publishes the DSM . According to the textbook, Adolf Hitler exhibited many of the classic signs of what personality disorder? An individual who truly believes that he or she should be the first person rescued from a burning building exhibits a symptom of which personality disorder? Which of the following is one of the diagnostic criteria for OCPD? What term describes the exemplar or ideal mental image associated with a particular category? Some researchers have suggested that strep throat infections in children are associated with the development of schizoid personality disorder. What disorder might represent an extreme or exaggerated version of traits associated with conscientiousness? What term describes the urge to seek erotic stimulation by rubbing up against people in crowded buses? According to Funder’s classification scheme, what four disorders are characterized by patterns of behavior that interfere with social relationships and can make an individual difficult to be around? Although the DSM reports that the ________ personality is frequently reported, recent data suggest that it is fairly rare. Physical illnesses that might be related to mental health appear on which axis of the DSM ? Someone who relies too heavily on others for making decisions is likely to have which personality disorder? Severe psychopathologies such as schizophrenia appear on which axis of the DSM ? Sally has an exaggerated sense of the greatness of her attributes and abilities. A trained observer would say that Sally is high in what personality dimension? Which of the following is NOT an advantage of B data? Faking responses in order to influence test results is most difficult on ________ constructed tests. What does the abbreviation MMPI stand for? ...Dr. Robbins asks his research participants to fill out questionnaires describing their early life. He then obtains copies of their arrest records from the county courthouse. The questionnaires used in Dr. Robbins’s study would be ________ data, whereas the arrest records would be ________ data. According to the text, what simple example of L data is considered by clinical psychologists to be a potential indicator of psychopathology? According to the book Personality and Assessment , a correlation of .30 is impressive. Dr. Akita is designing a test to measure sociability. She writes items that seem directly and obviously related to sociability, such as “I like to go to parties” and “I enjoy the company of other people.” Which method of test construction is Dr. Akita using? Validity is the degree to which a measurement Which of the following is the best definition of validity According to the text, which of the following is NOT a threat to the generalizability of personality research? “There is no such thing as objective reality, only human ideas or perceptions of reality,”____“The absence of perfect, infallible criteria for truth does not force us to conclude that all interpretations of reality are equally likely to be correct,”___ What might be an effect of expectancies in real life? Happiness is associated with what trait? Personality attributes are rarely linked with mortality risk. Individuals high in the trait of extraversion tend to die younger than individuals who are lower in extraversion. A correlation coefficient is a(n) ________ that ranges between ________. ________ data are fairly easily verifiable, concrete, real-life outcomes of possible psychological significance. Research on expectancy effects has provided a clear estimate of the size of the effect in real life. Applied psychologists involved in personnel selection are less concerned with error variance than research psychologists. The p-value tells researchers the probability that a finding will be exactly duplicated. Individuals with certain traits seem to be attracted to studies of prison life. How common is shyness?

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