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KOREA 177 Intellectual History in Modern Korea: Korean War and Rhee class

NATIONALISM: 1945-1960 Nation Building, Wars, Martyrdom, and Evangelistic Campaign Background: The Cold War Rhee’s Nation Building Liberal democracy Confucian ideology of “loyalty & Piety” 忠孝 Nationalist Fascism (German statism) Chosŏn Nationalist Youth Group ( 1946-49 Yi Pŏmsŏk, An Hosang, Paek Nakchun) -- learned in Germany & then from Zhang in China US aided $5 million -- trained 70,000 young men -- members 1.2 million Pro-American Capitalism limited free market system Pro-Japanese Leaders (→ pro-Am.) Anti-Japanese Policy : no diplomatic relationship Anti-Communism a “Christian Nation” Rhea's Christian Cabinets Christian Churches Supported the Korean War & his re-election The Republic of Korea and Its Kungmin An Ho-sang Minister of Education 1948 “The Principle of We (우리 原理): State Philosophy” (國家 哲學) “Communal life” –-not individual life, but collective life This collectivity was rooted in the nation and the state, not with class. the individual as a national and state being Without the state, there cannot be a complete communal life the state was “the uppermost unified body of all social bodies,” or “a supreme society” Patriotic nationalist deed was a way to overcome “selfish ego” & achieve “genuine life.” = the self of the state (國家的 自我) = 大我 the kungmin was a public and organic existence 公我 When the UN Army moved northward after the Inchon Landing Communists killed hundreds of Christians and Right-Wing people Christians prepared for the coming of the US Army as “crusaders” and “liberators” sent by God Christians & Right-Wing Groups killed thousands of Communists and civilians Retreating Communist soldiers killed Christians A New Communist So-me Uncle An Sŏngman 安聖萬 Person of in-between who kept the hometown the second floor of his house = place of Reconciliation More than 200,000 refugee Christians from North changed the religious landscape of South Korea. Their migration evoked the competition among the leaders for the ecclesiastical territory and power. Many of Wolnam-min (those who came over to the South) were conservative Presbyterians. The Shinto shrine issue complicated the situation. Hospitality of the South in 50s → blessed with prosperity in 60s-70s

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