KOREA 177 Intellectual History in Modern Korea: Korean War and Rhee class
NATIONALISM: 1945-1960Nation Building, Wars, Martyrdom, and Evangelistic Campaign
Background: The Cold War
Rhee’s Nation Building
Confucian ideology of “loyalty & Piety” 忠孝
Nationalist Fascism (German statism)
Chosŏn Nationalist Youth Group ( 1946-49 Yi Pŏmsŏk, An Hosang, Paek Nakchun) -- learned in Germany & then from Zhang in China
US aided $5 million -- trained 70,000 young men -- members 1.2 million
limited free market system
Pro-Japanese Leaders (→ pro-Am.)
Anti-Japanese Policy : no diplomatic relationship
a “Christian Nation”
Rhea's Christian Cabinets
Christian Churches Supported the Korean War & his re-election
The Republic of Korea and Its Kungmin
An Ho-sang Minister of Education
1948 “The Principle of We (우리 原理): State Philosophy” (國家 哲學)
“Communal life” –-not individual life, but collective life
This collectivity was rooted in the nation and the state, not with class.
the individual as a national and state being
Without the state, there cannot be a complete communal life
the state was “the uppermost unified body of all social bodies,” or “a supreme society”
Patriotic nationalist deed was a way to overcome “selfish ego” & achieve “genuine life.”
= the self of the state (國家的 自我) = 大我
the kungmin was a public and organic existence 公我
When the UN Army moved northward after the Inchon Landing
Communists killed hundreds of Christians and Right-Wing people
Christians prepared for the coming of the US Army as “crusaders” and “liberators” sent by God
Christians & Right-Wing Groups killed thousands of Communists and civilians
Retreating Communist soldiers killed Christians
A New Communist
So-me Uncle An Sŏngman 安聖萬
Person of in-between who kept the hometown
the second floor of his house = place of Reconciliation
More than 200,000 refugee Christians from North changed the religious landscape of South Korea.
Their migration evoked the competition among the leaders for the ecclesiastical territory and power.
Many of Wolnam-min (those who came over to the South) were conservative Presbyterians.
The Shinto shrine issue complicated the situation.
Hospitality of the South in 50s
→ blessed with prosperity in 60s-70s
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