Conservative: Elitist view
C = Essence of Korean cultural identity
C Ethics heals materialism, selfish individualism
History of Resistance (by heroes )
Progressive: Minjung-ist & Feminist view
C = flunkeyism to China & Pro-Japan collaboration
Folk religion & custom is the essence of Korean culture
C= Tool of oppression and injustice (by ruling class)
History of Resistance (by people 義
By the 1970s, it had become commonplace to depict the women of Chosŏn-era Korea as deprived, degraded, and oppressed and to attribute that sad situation to Confucian legal strictures and values
1997 -- marriage between people of the same surname and same ancestral seat (tongsong tongbon)
Royal Confucianism (chewang yugyo): ethical politics
Official Confucianism (kwallyo yugyo): ritual politics
Scholar Confucianism (sarim yugyo): eremite politics
Minjung Confucianism (minjung yugyo): people’s politics
based on the moral purity and creative capacities of the people
Confucianism and globalization
Confucianism and liberalism
Confucian morality and modern morality.
younger scholars point to the unique aspects of Korean politics, society, and culture, and contend that they can only be understood in relation to tradition.
These scholars tend to speak in terms of the "encounter, conflict, and harmonization" of Western civilization and Confucianism and to describe the outcome as "tradition within modernity and modernity within tradition."
Is Confucianism a transcendental system of thought in Asia?
Ignores substantial historical and contemporary political, social, and cultural differences
Needs to see particularities of each country in Asia
1979 Herman Kahn, World Economic Development, 1979 and Beyond,
“under current conditions the neo-Confucian cultures have many strengths and relatively few weaknesses. Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and the ethnic Chinese minorities in Malaysia and Thailand seem more adept at Industrialization than the West. The Confucian ethnic will result in all the neo-Confucian societies having at least potentially higher growth rates than other societies.”
“Asia’s four little dragons” (Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, SK)
1987, David Aikman: Confucian ethics Capitalism = East Asian model
Familism, Social stability & order, sound spirit of labor
Sacrifice for family and nation
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