1. An 18-year-old female is diagnosed with dysmenorrhea. Which of the following symptoms will she most likely experience?
a. Absence of menstruation
b. Painful menstruation
c. Unusually long menstrual period
d. Menstrual irregularity
2.. A 25-year-old female presents with amenorrhea and hirsutism. She is diagnosed with PCOS. Lab testing will most likely reveal:
a. Estrogen deficit
b. Genetic cancerous mutations
c. Cortisol excess
3. A 23-year-old sexually active female presents with white copious discharge and itch. She is diagnosed with yeast vaginitis caused by overgrowth of which microorganism?
a. Escherichia coli
b. Lactobacillus acidophilus
c. Candida albicans
d. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
4. The descent of the bladder and the anterior vaginal wall into the vaginal canal is called a:
5. The most commonly occurring cancer of the female reproductive tract is _____ cancer.
6. A 35-year-old female is diagnosed with endometriosis. Suppressing which of the following would be the most appropriate medical treatment for this disease?
7. A 21-year-old female is infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) following unprotected sexual intercourse with a male she recently met. She is now at higher risk of developing which of the following cancers?
8. Which of the following signs is usually the first clinical manifestation of breast cancer?
b. Nipple discharge
c. Chest pain
d. A painless lump
9. In the majority of cases delayed puberty is due to:
a. A disruption in the hypothalamus
b. A disruption of the pituitary
c. Slow maturation
d. Ambiguity in sex determination
10. A 30-year-old male presents with penile tenderness and discharge. Physical examination reveals that his foreskin cannot be retracted back over the glans penis. He is suffering from:
c. Peyronie disease
11. Cryptorchidism can be defined as:
a. A normal developmental state of the testes
b. An abnormal state in which the testes are overdeveloped
c. Lack of a scrotum
d. Problems with testicular descent
12. A 21-year-old male presents with inflammation of the testes. He has a high fever and edema and redness of the testes. Which organism is the most likely the cause of his symptoms?
a. Herpes virus
b. Escherichia coli
13. The patient’s medication has a side effect of gynecomastia. The patient asks the nurse to define this term. The nurse would respond that gynecomastia is:
a. Lack of breast development in women
b. Overdevelopment of breast tissue in males
c. A type of breast cancer
d. Inflammation of the mammary glands in lactating women
14. A 45-year-old male complains of heartburn after eating and difficulty swallowing. He probably has:
a. Pyloric stenosis
b. Gastric cancer
d. Hiatal hernia
15. A 50-year-old male is experiencing reflux of chyme from the stomach. He is diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is caused by:
a. Fibrosis of the lower third of the esophagus
b. Sympathetic nerve stimulation
c. Loss of muscle tone at the lower esophageal sphincter
d. Reverse peristalsis of the stomach
16. A serious complication of paraesophageal hiatal hernia is:
17. A 38-year-old female complains of epigastric fullness following a meal, nausea, and epigastric pain. Tests reveal narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum. This condition is referred to as:
a. Ileocecal obstruction
b. Hiatal hernia
c. Pyloric obstruction
d. Hiatal obstruction
18. Chronic gastritis is classified according to the:
b. Location of lesions
c. Patient’s age
d. Signs and symptoms
19. The primary causes of duodenal ulcers include (select all that apply):
a. Consumption of spicy foods
b. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
c. H. pylori infection
e. Side effects of antibiotics
20. A 24-year-old male who sustained a head injury and fractured femur develops a stress ulcer. A common clinical manifestation of this ulcer is:
a. Bowel obstruction
c. Pulmonary embolism
21. Obesity is define as a body mass index (BMI) greater than _____.
22. The most common disorder associated with upper GI bleeding is:
c. Esophageal varices
23. Clinical manifestations of bile salt deficiencies are related to poor absorption of:
a. Fats and fat-soluble vitamins
b. Water-soluble vitamins
24. Acute pancreatitis often manifests with pain to which of the following regions?
a. Right lower quadrant
b. Right upper quadrant
25. A 31-year-old female presents with midabdominal pain. She is expected to have acute pancreatitis. Which of the will be part of the treatment plan? (Select all that apply.)
a. Narcotic analgesics
b. Restriction of food intake
c. Nasogastric suctioning
e. IV fluids
ANS: A, B, C, D, E
26. A 52-year-old female presents with continuous abdominal pain that intensifies after eating. She is diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis. Contributing factors include: (Select all that apply.)
a. Alcohol abuse
b. Peptic ulcer disease
ANS: B, C, D
27. The family learns that a 3D ultrasound of a 9-week fetus shows incomplete fusion of the nasomedial or intermaxillary process. The family will be told that the child will be born with:
a. Cleft lip
b. Nasal passage atresia
c. Esophageal atresia
d. Lack of dentition
28. Examination of a newborn female revealed that the esophagus ends in a blind pouch. This condition is referred to on the chart as:
a. Esophageal atresia
b. Tracheoesophageal stenosis
d. Pyloric stenosis
29. A mother brings her 2-week-old infant to the pediatrician because he vomits forcefully for no apparent reason and food sometimes is regurgitated as though undigested. The infant is most likely suffering from:
a. Pyloric stenosis
b. Meconium ileus
c. Esophageal atresia
30. Meconium ileus is associated with which of the following disorders?
a. Pyloric stenosis
b. Esophageal atresia
c. Cystic fibrosis
31. A 2-month-old female with Down syndrome is diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease following family complaints of chronic constipation. The most likely cause of these symptoms is:
a. Absence of ganglia along the length of the colon
b. The use of cow’s milk instead of formula
c. Excessive use of glycerin suppositories to promote bowel elimination
d. Additional ganglia throughout the length of the colon
32. The primary complication of enterocolitis associated with Hirschsprung disease is related to which finding?
a. Fecal impaction
b. Pancreatic insufficiency
c. Hyperactive peristalsis
d. Ileal atresia
33. Occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux is highest in which pediatric population?
a. Premature infants
b. Infants with Down syndrome
c. Children with cystic fibrosis
d. Children with esophageal atresia
34. A 13-month-old infant presents with vomiting; abdominal pain; and pale, bulky, greasy, and foul-smelling stools. A possible diagnosis the clinician would document on the chart might be:
a. Failure to thrive
b. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy
c. Gastroesophageal reflux
d. Meconium ileus
35. An 8-week-old male was recently diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. Which of the following digestive alterations would be expected?
a. Insufficient bile production
b. Gastric atrophy
c. Hypersecretion of stomach acid
36. Prolonged diarrhea is more serious in children than adults because:
a. Children have lower adipose reserves.
b. Fluid reserves are lower in children.
c. Children have a lower metabolic rate.
d. Children are more resistant to antimicrobial therapy.
37. When an infant has increased bilirubin production and impaired hepatic excretion of bilirubin, what does the nurse suspect is occurring in the patient?
a. Biliary hypertrophy
b. Physiologic jaundice
c. Hepatitis A
d. Infantile cirrhosis
38. A 7-month-old female presents with jaundice, clay-colored stool, and failure to gain weight. Testing reveals the absence of intrahepatic bile ducts. This condition is referred to as _____ atresia.
39. The nurse assessing the patient with biliary atresia would expect to find which primary clinical manifestation?
40. Which of the following clinical findings would be expected in the patient with rhabdomyolysis?
b. Dark urine
c. Yellow color to the skin
d. Lower extremity swelling
41. A 70-year-old female presents with a hip fracture. She is diagnosed with osteoporosis. One factor that most likely contributed to her condition is:
a. Increased androgen levels
b. Decreased estrogen levels
c. Strenuous exercise
d. Excessive dietary calcium
42. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of osteomalacia. History reveals that he takes anticonvulsants, underwent small bowel resection 3 years earlier, and suffers from chronic pancreatitis. What is the common link between these three factors and the development of osteomalacia?
a. Impaired phosphate absorption
b. Increased calcium excretion
c. Vitamin D deficiency
d. Impaired vitamin C metabolism
43. A 70-year-old male presents with back pain, fever, and weight loss. He reports that he had a recent respiratory infection from which he thought he recovered. Tests revealed increased white blood cell count, and a diagnosis of endogenous osteomyelitis was made. The primary organism causing this condition is:
a. Staphylococcus aureus
d. Haemophilus influenza
44. A 54-year-old female was recently diagnosed with degenerative joint disease. This condition is characterized by loss of:
a. The epiphyses
b. Articular cartilage
c. Synovial fluid
d. The joint capsule
45. Researchers now believe that RA is:
a. Curable with antiviral agents
b. An autoimmune disease
c. A complication of rheumatic fever
d. Related superficial joint injury
46. A 51-year-old male experienced severe acute gouty arthritis. Which of the following is the most common trigger for the symptoms?
c. High-fat foods
d. Lack of exercise
47. To make a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, tenderness must be present in ____ of the 18 points necessary for diagnosis.
48. While performing an assessment of a 2-month-old, the nurse notes a positive Ortolani click. The nurse would suspect the child has:
a. A hip fracture
b. Hip dysplasia
c. Osteogenesis imperfecta
49. Polyarthritis is a type of juvenile arthritis in which more than _____ joints are affected
50. Which of the following types of scoliosis accounts for the majority of the cases of scoliosis?
51. A 13-year-old female presents with pain at night, cough, and dyspnea. Testing reveals a metastasizing malignant bone tumor. The most likely type of tumor is:
a. Nonossifying fibroma
c. Ewing sarcoma
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