Assignment 3: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology (2018) (Already graded A )
Assignment 3: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology (2018)
Minimum Pass Grade: 50%
1. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete each sentence. Be as specific as possible.
a. Erythrocytes contain the enzyme ______, which catalyzes the conversion of metabolically produced CO2 and water into ______.
b. Most old erythrocytes are removed from circulation and destroyed by cells called ______, as they rupture passing through the narrow capillaries of the organ called the _____.
c. Undifferentiated cells called _______ reside in the bone marrow, where they continuously divide and _______ to give rise to each of the types of blood cells.
d. The process of leukocytes squeezing through the capillary ________ to exit the vasculature is known as emigration or ________. Once they leave the bloodstream to fight a pathological condition, they never return.
e. The genetically-determined glycoprotein and _________ antigens found on the surface of an erythrocyte are called _________, and a person with agglutinins that react with type A and blood type B has type _____blood.
f. During embryonic development, ninety-nine percent of the cardiac fibers are specialized for the function called _______, whereas the remainder is specialized for _________.
g. The action potential delay at the _________ ensures that atrial excitation and contraction are complete before __________ excitation and contraction commence.
h. The ________ is the volume of blood in the ventricle after ejection has been completed. An increase of this volume occurs when the stroke volume is _______.
i. The three cations, K , Ca2 , and Na have an important effect of heart function. Increased blood levels of Na blocks ______ inflow and results in a decrease in the force of contraction, while an excess of ______ blocks the generation of action potentials.
j. An increase in parasympathetic activity has the following effect on stroke volume: ________. An increase in parasympathetic activity _______ atrial contractility.
2. A patient has the misfortune to have both diabetes insipidus and Addison’s disease.How will those conditions affect the patient’s ability to regulate blood pressure?
3. In the correct sequence, list the names of the blood vessels and heart’s chambers that an RBC would travel through (or flow into other vessels) on its journey from the muscles located anterior to the right tibia to the heart, then to the left shoulder muscles, and then back to the heart. Take in consideration only the vessels listed in the Study Guide.
4. Describe the activation, proliferation and differentiation of T cells and B cells and briefly describe the functions of the differentiated cells.
5. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B.
Items in column A can be used only once when making matches to column B.
6. You eat spaghetti with meatballs in marinara sauce and drink a glass of orange juice. Describe the chemical components of your meal, the digestive events in the mouth, and the content of your stomach one hour after you ingest the meal and juice, and describe what happens to the chemical constituents in the stomach. Describe the digestive processes for each of these nutrients in the small intestine, and the mechanisms for absorption of vitamins, water, and electrolytes.
7. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete the sentence.
a. _____ is the sum of all of the chemical reactions in the body, while _______ refers to chemical reactions that decompose large molecules into smaller ones.
b. ________ is the chemical reaction in which there is a gain of electrons and it is the opposite of ________.
c. _______ is a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms during coupled ________ reactions in the cell.
d. _________ is made primarily in the mitochondria by a process called ________.
e. _______ is a set of reactions in which there is the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid, and ________ is the formation of glucose molecules from noncarbohydrate sources.
f. ________ transport lipids in the bloodstream; they include VLDLs, LDLs, and HDLs. In lipolysis, _________ are split into fatty acids and glycerol.
g. ________ is the molecule that enters the Krebs cycle; it is also used to synthesize fatty acids, ketone bodies, and _______.
h. _______ is the primary hormone regulating metabolism during the absorptive state; the major taskof the ________ state is to maintain the normal blood glucose level.
i. The metabolic rate observed when a fasting individual is resting but awake and is experiencing comfortable conditions is called the _______. Peripheral _______ allows increased blood flow to superficial tissues of the body to release excess heat.
j. ______ is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid; proper levels of this ion are critical for nerve impulse conduction and maintenance of ______balance.
8. Describe the pressures that affect glomerular filtration, and describe the effects of drinking too much beer on the urinary system.
9. List and briefly describe the mechanisms that prevent acid-base imbalances from appearing in the body. In addition, indicate where each mechanism functions most significantly. (Do not explain any specific chemical reactions.)
10. Describe the path of a sperm cell from the site of its maturation to the site of the acrosomal reaction. Include the major function of each segment in this processand descriptions and functions of fluids added along that path.
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