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Assignment 1: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology (2018) (Already graded A )

Assignment 1: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology (2018) Weight: 5% Minimum Pass Grade: 50% Each question is worth 10 marks. 1. Maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis is critical to neurological, cardiac and skeletal muscle function. Consider the roles of two hormones involved in the regulation of the concentration of calcium ions in the blood. Parathyroid hormone increases the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, while calcitonin decreases the concentration. Based on this information predict the body’s response to restore calcium balance if a person swallowed 100 antacid tablets made of a calcium compound in 10 minutes. Include in your answer the definition of homeostasis, the type of feedback loop involved and all of the components of a feedback loop. 2. Provide one important example (in the human body) of each of the following: • a molecule containing ionic bonds • a molecule containing covalent bonds • a molecule containing hydrogen bonds What is the function of each of these three molecules you have identified in the human body? Explain why each of these three molecules must have its specific types of bonds in order to perform that molecule’s function. 3. Define mitosis and meiosis, and describe the differences between these two processes. 4. List the skin glands and write details about their functions. What would be the consequences if a person’s skin glands stopped functioning? 5. Describe how the structures of the epidermis allow it to provide immediate and indirect protection to underlying tissues. 6. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete each of the following sentences. a. Functions of the skeletal system include support, protection, assisting in movement,______ homeostasis, _________production and triglyceride storage. b. The hollow space inside of long bones that is lined with __________and filled with yellow marrow is the___________. c. The protein that provides flexibility and ________strength to bone is ___________. d. ___________bone tissue is organized into concentric rings of bone tissue, which are called osteons or____________. e. _________accompany blood vessels within bone tissue; the periosteum is enriched with ___________neurons. f. Ossification may also be called___________; in an embryo, it begins with the organization of __________tissue into the general shape of bones. g. ___________ossification occurs between _____________ connective tissue sheet-like layers that resemble membranes. h. Activity of the epiphyseal plate causes the ___________region of a bone to grow in_________. i. _______, IGFs, insulin and T3/T4 are the primary stimulators of bone growth before_______. j. _________is the hormone that ___________the effects of parathyroid hormone. 7. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES. Items in column A can be used more than once when making matches to column B. However, there is only one correct answer for each blank space. 8. a. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES. Items in column A can be used more than once when making matches to column B. However, there is only one correct answer for each blank space. b. From the movements listed in column B, list the scientific names of the bones (learned in earlier chapters) that meet at each joint, i.e., where each movement occurs. Note: The spaces below require one or two bones of a certain region. Be very specific when required. 9. Compare the organization and functions of axial and appendicular skeletons, and describe in detail the girdles of the latter. 10. Match the items in column A with descriptions in column B to create the BEST MATCHES. Items in column A can be used only once when making matches to column B. There is only one correct answer for each blank space.

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