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[Solved] TEST BANK PATHOPHYSIOLOGY THE BIOLOGIC BASIS FOR DISEASE IN ADULTS AND CHILDREN 8th Edition Updated 2021

TEST BANK PATHOPHYSIOLOGY THE BIOLOGIC BASIS FOR DISEASE IN ADULTS AND CHILDREN 8th Edition, A guide [SOLVED] TEST BANK PATHOPHYSIOLOGY THE BIOLOGIC BASIS FOR DISEASE IN ADULTS AND CHILDREN 8th Edition Updated 2021- Table of Contents Part 1: CENTRAL CONCEPTS OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: CELLS AND TISSUES Unit I: THE CELL 1. Cellular Biology 2. Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents 3. The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids and Bases Unit II: GENES AND GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION 4. Genes and Genetic Diseases 5. Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, andCommon Diseases 6. Epigenetics and Disease Unit III: MECHANISMS OF SELF-DEFENSE 7. Innate Immunity: Inflammation 8. Adaptive Immunity 9. Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation 10. Infection 11. Stress and Disease Unit IV. CELLULAR PROLIFERATION: CANCER 12. Cancer Biology 13. Cancer Epidemiology 14. Cancer in Children Part 2: PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC ALTERATIONS: ORGANS AND SYSTEMS Unit V: THE NEUROLOGIC SYSTEM 15. Structure and Function of the Neurologic System 16. Pain, Temperature Regulation, Sleep, and Sensory Function 17. Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function 18. Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems andthe Neuromuscular Junction 19. Neurobiology of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, and AnxietyDisorders 20. Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children Unit VI: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 21. Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation 22. Alterations of Hormonal Regulation 23. Obesity and Disorders of Nutrition NEW Unit VII: THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS 24. Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems 25. Alterations of the Female Reproductive System 26. Alterations of the MaleReproductive System 27. Sexually Transmitted Infections Unit VIII: THE HEMATOLOGIC SYSTEM 28. Structure and Function of the Hematologic System 29. Alterations of Erythrocyte, Platelet, and Hemostatic Function 30. Alterations of Leukocyte and Lymphoid Function 31. Alterations of HematologicFunction in Children Unit IX: THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS 32. Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems 33. Alterations of CardiovascularFunction 34. Alterations of Cardiovascular Function in Children Unit X: THE PULMONARY SYSTEM 35. Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System 36. Alterations of PulmonaryFunction 37. Alterations of Pulmonary Function in Children Unit XI: THE RENAL AND UROLOGIC SYSTEMS 38. Structure and Function of the Renal and Urologic Systems 39. Alterations of Renal and Urinary Function 40. Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function in Children Unit XII: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 41. Structure and Functionof the Digestive System 42. Alterations of Digestive Function 43. Alterations of Digestive Function in Children Unit XIII: THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM 44. Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System 45. Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function 46. Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function in Children Unit XIV: THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 47. Structure, Function, and Disorders of the Integument 48. Alterations of the Integument in Children Unit XV: MULTIPLE INTERACTING SYSTEMS 49. Shock, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Burns in Adults 50. Shock, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Burns in Children Chapter 01: Cellular Biology                                                                                             MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.      Which statement best describes the cellular function of metabolic absorption? a. Cells can produce proteins. b. Cells can secrete digestive enzymes. c. Cells can take in and use nutrients. d. Cells can synthesize fats. ANS: C In metabolic absorption, all cells take in and use nutrients and other substances from their surroundings. The remaining options are not inclusive in their descriptions of cellular metabolic absorption. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 2.      Where is most of a cell’s genetic information, including RNA and DNA, contained? a. Mitochondria b. Ribosome c. Nucleolus d. Lysosome ANS: C The nucleus contains the nucleolus, a small dense structure composed largely of RNA, most of the cellular DNA, and the DNA-binding proteins, such as the histones, which regulate its activity. The mitochondria are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production. Ribosomes’ chief function is to provide sites for cellular protein synthesis. Lysosomes function as the intracellular digestive system. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 3.      Which component of the cell produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms from specific substrates in an oxidative reaction? a. Lysosomes b. Peroxisomes c. Ribosomes d. Endosome ANS: B Peroxisomes are so named because they usually contain enzymes that use oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms from specific substrates in an oxidative reaction that produces H2O2, which is a powerful oxidant and potentially destructive if it accumulates or escapes from peroxisomes. Ribosomes are RNA-protein complexes (nucleoproteins) that are synthesized in the nucleolus andsecreted into the cytoplasm through pores in the nuclear envelope called nuclear pore complexes. Lysosomes are saclike structures that originate from the Golgi complex and contain more than 40 digestive enzymes called hydrolases, which catalyze bonds in proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. An endosome is a vesical that has been pinched off from the cellular membrane. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 4.      Which cell component is capable of cellular autodigestion when it is released during cell injury? a. Ribosome b. Golgi complex c. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum d. Lysosomes ANS: D The lysosomal membrane acts as a protective shield between the powerful digestive enzymes within the lysosome andthe cytoplasm, preventing their leakage into the cytoplasmic matrix. Disruption of the membrane by various treatments or cellular injury leads to a release of the lysosomal enzymes, which can then react with their specific substrates, causing cellular self- digestion. The chief function of a ribosome is to provide sites for cellular protein synthesis. The Golgi complex is a network of flattened, smooth vesicles andmembranes often located near the cell nucleus. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in steroid hormone production andremoving toxic substances from the cell. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 5.      Which cAMP-mediated response is related to antidiuretic hormone? a. Increased heart rate andforce of contraction b. Secretion of cortisol c. Increased retention of water d. Breakdown of fat ANS: C Antidiuretic hormone leads to increased retention of water in the body. Epinephrine causes increases in heart rate andforce of contraction. Increased cortisol secretion is due to ACTH. Breakdown of fat is due to glucagon. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 6.      During which phase of the cell cycle is DNA synthesized? a. G1 b. S c. G2 d. M ANS: B The four designated phases of the cell cycle are: (1) the G1 phase (G = gap), which is the period between the M phase (M = mitosis) andthe start of DNA synthesis; (2) the S phase (S = synthesis), during which DNA is synthesized in the cell nucleus; (3) the G2 phase, during which RNA andprotein synthesis occurs, the period between the completion of DNA synthesis andthe next phase (M); and(4) the M phase, which includes nuclear andcytoplasmic division. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 7.      What organic compound facilitates transportation across cell membranes by acting as receptors, transport channels for electrolytes, andenzymes to drive active pumps? a. Lipids b. Proteases c. Proteins d. Carbohydrates ANS: C Proteins have several functions, including acting as receptors, transport channels for electrolytes, andenzymes to drive active pumps Lipids help act as the “glue” holding cell membranes together. Proteases cause the breakdown of protein. Carbohydrates are involved in cellular protection andlubrication andhelp produce energy via oxidative phosphorylation. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 8.      Understanding the various steps of proteolytic cascades may be useful in designing drug therapy for which human diseases? a. Cardiac andvascular disorders b. Autoimmune andmalignant disorders c. Gastrointestinal andrenal disorders d. Endocrine andgastrointestinal disorders ANS: B Understanding the various steps involved in this process is crucial for designing drug interventions. Dysregulation of proteases features prominently in many human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, andneurodegenerative disorders. Cardiac, vascular, gastrointestinal, renal, andendocrine disorders do not involve this process. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 9.      Which structure prevents water-soluble molecules from entering cells across the plasma membrane? a. Carbohydrate chains b. Glycoprotein channels c. Membrane channel proteins d. Lipid bilayer ANS: D The bilayer’s structure accounts for one of the essential functions of the plasma membrane. It is impermeable to most water-soluble molecules (molecules that dissolve in water) because the water-soluble molecules are insoluble in the oily core region. The bilayer serves as a barrier to the diffusion of water andhydrophilic substances while allowing lipid-soluble molecules, such as oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), to diffuse through it readily. Carbohydrate chains, glycoprotein channels, and membrane channel proteins do not prevent water-soluble molecules from entering cells across the cell membrane. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 10.     A student asks for an explanation of the absolute refractory period of the action potential. What response by the professor is best? a. A stronger than normal impulse will evoke another response. b. No stimulus is able to evoke another response at this time. c. Multiple stimuli can produce more rapid action potentials. d. The hyperpolarized state means a weaker stimulus produces a response. ANS: B During the absolute refractory state of the action potential, no stimulus is able to evoke another response from the cell. A stronger than normal impulse may generate a response in the relative refractory period. This period of time is not related to the number of stimuli. A hyperpolarized state means a stronger than normal stimulus would be needed to generate a response. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 11.     Which form of cell communication is used to communicate within the cell itself andwith other cells in direct physical contact? a. Protein channel (gap junction) b. Plasma membrane-bound signaling molecules c. Hormone secretion such as neurotransmitters d. Extracellular chemical messengers such as ligands ANS: B Cells communicate in three main ways; they display plasma membrane-bound signaling molecules that affect the cell itself and other cells in direct physical contact with it, they affect receptor proteins inside the target cell, and they form protein channels (gap junctions) that directly coordinate the activities of adjacent cells. Neurotransmitters are released by neurons and cross the synaptic cleft to communicate with the cells they innervate. Ligands are involved in binding processes. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 12.     Which mode of chemical signaling uses blood to transport communication to cells some distance away? a. Paracrine b. Autocrine c. Neurotransmitter d. Hormonal ANS: D Chemical signaling can be classified into three categories: (1) local-chemical mediator, (2) hormone, and(3) neurotransmitter. Hormones are released by one set of cells and travel through tissues or the bloodstream to another set of cells where they produce a response by those cells. In paracrine signaling, cells secrete local chemical mediators that are quickly absorbed, destroyed, or immobilized. Paracrine signaling requires close membrane-to-membrane contact. Paracrine signaling usually involves different cell types; however, cells also may produce signals that they, themselves, respond to, which is called autocrine signaling. Neurotransmitters are released by neurons and cross the synaptic cleft to communicate with the cells they innervate. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 13.     Which mode of chemical signaling uses local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up, destroyed, or immobilized? a. Paracrine b. Autocrine c. Neurotransmitter d. Hormone ANS: A In paracrine signaling, cells secrete local chemical mediators that are quickly taken up, destroyed, or immobilized. Autocrine signaling occurs when the target cells produce signals that they themselves respond to. Neurotransmitters are released by neurons andcross the synaptic cleft to communicate with the cells they innervate. Hormones are released by one set of cells andtravel through tissues or the bloodstream to another set of cells where they produce a response by those cells. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 14.     Neurotransmitters affect the postsynaptic membrane by binding to which structure? a. Lipids b. Ribosomes c. Amphipathic lipids d. Receptors ANS: D In each type of chemical signaling, the target cell receives the signal by first attaching to its receptors. The other options do not correctly describe this process. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 15.     How do cells receive communication from the extracellular fluid surrounding them? a. Protein channel (gap junction) b. Plasma membrane-bound signaling molecules (involving receptors) c. Hormone secretion such as neurotransmitters d. Chemical messengers such as ligands ANS: D Signal transduction involves incoming signals or instructions from extracellular chemical messengers (ligands) that are conveyed to the cell’s interior for execution. The other options do not correctly describe how cells receive communication from the surrounding extracellular fluid. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 16.     Which molecule provides the second messenger necessary for extracellular communication to be activated? a. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) b. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) c. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) d. Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) ANS: B The two major second-messenger pathways are cyclic AMP (cAMP) andcalcium (Ca++). GTP, ATP, andGDP are not major second-messenger pathways. GTP andGDP are “middlemen” or intermediaries. Nutrients are transformed into energy in the form of ATP. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 17.     Under anaerobic conditions, what process provides energy for the cell? a. Oxidative phosphorylation b. Glycolysis c. Lactolysis d. Passive transport ANS: B Glycolysis provides energy to the cells when oxygen delivery is insufficient or delayed. Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which energy produced from nutrients is transferred to ATP. Lactolysis is the breakdown of lactose. Passive transport is the movement of water andsmall, nonelectrically charge molecules across plasma membranes. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 18.     What is the mechanism by which the energy produced from carbohydrates, proteins, andlipids is transferred to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)? a. Anaerobic glycolysis b. Oxidative cellular metabolism c. Oxidative phosphorylation d. Tricarboxylic acid phosphorylation ANS: C Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondria andis the mechanism by which the energy produced from carbohydrates, fats, andproteins is transferred to ATP. Glycolysis provides energy to the cells when oxygen delivery is insufficient or delayed. Oxidative cellular metabolism andtricarboxylic acid phosphorylation are not involved in transferring energy to ATP. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 19.     Passive transport is best described with which statement? a. Being driven by osmosis, hydrostatic pressure, anddiffusion b. Involving receptors that can bind with substances being transported c. Being capable of transporting macromolecules d. Requiring energy generated by the cell ANS: A Water and small electrically uncharged molecules move easily through pores in the plasma membrane’s lipid bilayer. This process, called passive transport, naturally occurs through any semipermeable barrier. It is driven by osmosis, hydrostatic pressure, anddiffusion, all of which depend on the laws of physics anddo not require life. The other options do not correctly describe passive transport. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 20.     Which is the best example of active transport? a. Movement across a membrane due to differences in solute concentration b. Movement requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy c. Movement of two molecules simultaneously in one direction d. Movement of two molecules simultaneously in opposite directions ANS: B Active transport requires a life, biologic activity, and the expenditure of metabolic energy. Movement due simply to differences in concentration gradients is called passive transport. Movement of two molecules in the same direction is called symport, while moving two molecules in opposite directions is called antiport. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 21.     Which method of transport uses transmembrane proteins with receptors with a high degree of specificity for the substance being transported? a. Active b. Mediated c. Transmembranous d. Passive ANS: B Mediated transport (passive and active) involves integral or transmembrane proteins with receptors having a high degree of specificity for the substance being transported. Active and passive transport are opposites with active transport requiring the use of energy and passive transport relying on osmosis, hydrostatic pressure, and diffusion and not energy. Transmembranous means “across membranes.” PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 22.     The movement of fluid across the arterial end of capillary membranes into the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary is an example of which fluid movement process? a. Hydrostatic pressure b. Osmosis c. Diffusion d. Active transport ANS: A Hydrostatic pressure is the mechanical force of water pushing against cellular membranes. Osmosis is the movement of water “down” a concentration gradient, that is, across a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration. Diffusion is the movement of a solute molecule from an area of greater solute concentration to an area of lesser solute concentration. Active transport requires a life, biologic activity, andthe expenditure of metabolic energy. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 23.     A student asks why osmolality is preferred over osmolarity as the measurement of osmotic activity in the clinical assessment of individuals. What response by the professor is most accurate? a. Plasma contains sodium andchloride, which influence the volume of solution. b. Volume affects perfusion more than the weight of solutes. c. More of the weight of plasma is influenced by solutes rather than by water. d. Osmotic activity depends on the concentration of solutes present in plasma. ANS: C Osmolality is a measure of the number of milliosmoles per kilogram (mOsm/kg) of water, or the concentration of molecules per weight of water. Osmolarity is a measure of the number of milliosmoles per liter (mOsm/L) of solution, or the concentration of molecules per volume of solution. Osmolality is a measure of the number of milliosmoles per kilogram (mOsm/kg) of water, or the concentration of molecules per weight of water. Osmolarity is a measure of the number of milliosmoles per liter (mOsm/L) of solution, or the concentration of molecules per volume of solution. In plasma, less of the plasma weight is water; therefore the overall concentration of particles is greater. The osmolality will be greater than the osmolarity because of the smaller proportion of water. Osmolality is thus the preferred measure of osmotic activity in clinical assessment of individuals. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 24.     A patient who has diarrhea receives a 3% saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium andchloride lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells? a. Become hydrated b. Swell or burst c. Shrink d. Divide ANS: C A hypertonic solution has a concentration of greater than 285 to 294 mOsm/kg. An example of a hypertonic solution is 3% saline solution. Water can be pulled out of the cells by a hypertonic solution; therefore the cells shrink. An isotonic solution will cause the cells to become more hydrated without disrupting the osmolality of either intracellular or extracellular fluid. Hypotonic solutions can cause cells to swell or burst. No solutions lead to cell division. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 25.     The transport of glucose from the blood to the cell is accomplished by which process? a. Hydrostatic pressure b. Active diffusion c. Passive osmosis d. Mediated transport ANS: D Mediated transport is the means by which glucose is transported from the blood to the cells. This process uses transport proteins. Hydrostatic pressure is the force of water pushing against a cell membrane. Diffusion is a passive process, not active. Osmosis is the movement of water “down” a concentration gradient, that is, across a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration andis a passive process. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 26.     What transports potassium andsodium across plasma membranes? a. Passive electrolyte channels b. Coupled channels c. Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme d. Diffusion ANS: C The exact mechanism for the transport of Na+ andK+ across the membrane is uncertain. One proposal is that ATPase enzyme induces the transporter protein to undergo several conformational changes, causing Na+ andK+ to move short distances (see Figure 1-29). The remaining options do not correctly describe the means by which K+ andNa+ are transported. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 27.     What occurs during exocytosis? a. Macromolecules can be secreted across eukaryotic cell membranes. b. All substances are secreted into the cellular matrix. c. No repairs in the plasma membrane can take place. d. Solute molecules flow freely into andout of the cell. ANS: A In eukaryotic cells, secretion of macromolecules almost always occurs by exocytosis. The remaining options do not correctly describe exocytosis. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 28.     The cellular uptake of the nutrient cholesterol depends on which process? a. Receptor-mediated exocytosis b. Antiport system c. Receptor-mediated endocytosis d. Passive transport ANS: C The cellular uptake of nutrients, such as cholesterol, for example, depends on receptor-mediated endocytosis. Nutrients are not transported via the other options. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 29.     What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential to initiate an action potential? a. Potassium gates open, andpotassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive. b. Sodium gates open, andsodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive. c. Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative. d. Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative. ANS: B When a resting cell is stimulated through voltage-regulated channels, the cell membranes become more permeable to Na+. As Na+ moves into the cell the membrane potential decreases, or moves forward, from a negative value (in millivolts) to zero. The Na+ gates open, andNa+ rushes into the cell, causing the membrane potential to reduce to zero andthen become positive (depolarization). The remaining options do not correctly describe the change that initiates an action potential. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 30.     The action of platelet-derived growth factor is to stimulate the production of which cells? a. Platelets b. Epidermal cells c. Connective tissue cells d. Fibroblast cells ANS: C Different types of cells require different factors to stimulate proliferation; for example, platelet- derived growth factor stimulates the production of connective tissue cells. Platelet-derived growth factor does not stimulate production of platelets, epidermal cells, or fibroblasts. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 31.     What role do cytokines play in cell reproduction? a. Provide growth factor for tissue growth anddevelopment b. Block progress of cell reproduction through the cell cycle c. Restrain cell growth anddevelopment d. Provide nutrients for cell growth anddevelopment ANS: A Growth factors, also called cytokines, stimulate an increase in cell mass or cell growth by promoting the synthesis of proteins andother macromolecules andinhibiting their degradation. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 32.     What is the process of cellular reproduction? a. The process often takes months or years to complete. b. Cellular reproduction typically has a short interphase. c. Two diploid cells, called daughter cells, have been formed. d. The process involves the interaction of male andfemale cells. ANS: C During telophase, the final stage of cellular reproduction, two identical diploid cells, called daughter cells, has been formed from the original cell. The process occurs hundreds of times a second. Interphase is the longest phase of the cell cycle. Male andfemale cells do not interact in cellular reproduction; each cell is responsible for reproducing itself. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 33.     Which statement is true about eukaryotic cells? a. They lack distinct nucleus. b. They contain compartments called organelles. c. They lack an encasing nuclear membrane. d. They are smaller than the typical prokaryote cell. ANS: B Eukaryotic cells have a characteristic set of membrane-bound intracellular compartments called organelles that include a well-defined nucleus encased in a nuclear membrane. Eukaryotic cells are also larger than prokaryotes. PTS:   1                    DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 34.     Which statement is true about phagocytosis? a. Phagocytosis is an example of exocytosis. b. Phagocytosis is dependent on small vesicles. c. Phagocytosis involves the ingestion of bacteria. d. Phagocytosis focuses on solute molecules. ANS: C Phagocytosis is the engulfment of large particles in phagocytic cells. Phagocytosis is an example of endocytosis, not exocytosis anddoes not focus on solutes. PTS:   1                    DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 35.     A muscle cell possesses which specialized function? a. Movement b. Conductivity c. Secretion d. Respiration ANS: A A cell has the potential to differentiation andto gain the ability to perform one of eight specialized functions. Muscle cells can generate forces that produce motion. Nerves cells are capable of conductivity. Cells of the adrenal gland, testis, andovary can secrete. Respiration is a function that all cells possess. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 36.     When a mucous gland cell creates a new substance from previously absorbed material, this process is known as which specialized cellular function? a. Excretion b. Metabolic absorption c. Reproduction d. Secretion ANS: D Certain cells, such as mucous gland cells, can synthesize new substances from substances they absorb andthen secrete the new substances to serve elsewhere as needed. Excretion occurs when cells rid themselves of waste products. Reproduction is the process of forming new cells. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 37.     All cells are capable of what process? a. Excretion b. Movement c. Conductivity d. Continuous division ANS: A All cells have the capacity to excrete, thus allowing them to rid themselves of waste products resulting from the metabolic breakdown of nutrients. Muscle cells have the property of movement. Conductivity is a property of nerve cells. Many, but not all, cells are capable of reproduction. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 38.     What is the best description of cell cycle arrest? a. The cell cycle is stopped due to damaged DNA. b. Programmed cell death is suppressed. c. Macromolecule degradation is inhibited. d. Production of growth factors is halted. ANS: A The DNA damage response occurs when DNA is damaged andseveral protein kinases are recruited to the site of damage andstart a signaling pathway that stops the progression of the cell cycle, or cell cycle arrest. Cell cycle arrest does not involve suppressing programmed cell death, macromolecule degradation, or growth factor production. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering MULTIPLE RESPONSE   1.      What are the major chemical components of the cell membranes? (Select all that apply.) a. Lipids b. Sodium ions c. Carbohydrates d. DNA e. Proteins ANS: A, E The major chemical components of all cell membranes are lipids andproteins. Sodium ions, carbohydrates, andDNA are not major chemical components of cell membranes. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 2.      Which statements are true concerning the process of mediated transport? (Select all that apply.) a. Can be active or passive b. Only moves one molecule at a time c. Involves transport proteins d. Expends tremendous energy e. Occurs only with hormones ANS: A, C Mediated transport uses membrane transport proteins andcan be either active or passive. Mediated transport systems can move molecules singly or two at a time andmay or may not use energy. Many substances can be moved through mediated transport. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 3.      What is passive transport dependent on? (Select all that apply.) a. Semipermeable barrier membrane b. The process of osmosis c. Diffusion as a driving force d. A living host e. Hydrostatic pressure ANS: A, B, C, E Passive transport naturally occurs through any semipermeable barrier. It is driven by osmosis, hydrostatic pressure, anddiffusion, all of which depend on the laws of physics anddo not require life. PTS:   1           DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 4.      What is the primary function of proteins? (Select all that apply.) a. Proteins are binding units. b. Proteins are transport channels. c. Proteins are ribonucleoproteins. d. Proteins provide cell surface markers. e. Proteins are chemical reaction catalysts. ANS: A, B, D, E Protein functions include (a) recognition andbinding units (receptors) for substances moving in andout of the cell; (b) pores or transport channels; (c) enzymes that drive active pumps; (d) cell surface markers, such as glycoproteins; (e) cell adhesion molecules; and(f) catalysts of chemical reactions. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Rememberin Chapter 02: Altered Cellular andTissue Biology: Environmental Agents   MULTIPLE CHOICE   1.      Which type of cell adaptation occurs when normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial lining have been replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells? a. Hyperplasia b. Metaplasia c. Dysplasia d. Anaplasia ANS: B Metaplasia is the reversible replacement of one mature cell by another, sometimes a less- differentiated cell type. The best example of metaplasia is the replacement of normal columnar- ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial (airway) lining by stratified squamous epithelial cells. The other options do not accurately describe the event in the question. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 2.      What does the loss of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during ischemia cause cells to do? a. Shrink because of the influx of calcium (Ca) b. Shrink because of the influx of potassium chloride (KCl) c. Swell because of the influx of sodium chloride (NaCl) d. Swell because of the influx of nitric oxide (NO) ANS: C A reduction in ATP levels causes the plasma membrane’s sodium–potassium (Na+–K+) pump and                      sodium–calcium exchange to fail, which leads to an intracellular accumulation of sodium and calcium anddiffusion of potassium out of the cell. (The Na+–K+ pump is discussed in Chapter 1.) Sodium andwater can then freely enter the cell, andcellular swelling results. The other options do not accurately describe the result of ATP at the cellular level. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 3.      The mammary glands enlarge during pregnancy primarily as a consequence of what hormonal process? a. Atrophy b. Hyperplasia c. Anaplasia d. Dysplasia ANS: B Hormonal hyperplasia occurs chiefly in estrogen-dependent organs, such as the uterus andbreast. Atrophy is a decrease or shrinkage in cellular size. Anaplasia is a condition of poor cellular differentiation, a characteristic of cancer cells. Dysplasia is a change in the size, shape, andorganization of mature cells. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 4.      Free radicals play a major role in the initiation andprogression of which diseases? a. Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension andischemic heart disease b. Renal diseases such as acute tubular necrosis andglomerulonephritis c. Gastrointestinal diseases such as peptic ulcer disease andCrohn disease d. Muscular disease such as muscular dystrophy andfibromyalgia ANS: A Emerging data indicate that reactive oxygen species play major roles in the initiation andprogression of cardiovascular alterations associated with hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, andchronic heart failure. Free radical damage is not a contributing mechanism for the renal, gastrointestinal, or muscular diseases listed. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 5.      How do free radicals cause cell damage? a. Stealing the cell’s oxygen to stabilize the electron, thus causing hypoxia b. Stimulating the release of lysosomal enzymes that digest the cell membranes c. Transferring one of its charged, stabilized atoms to the cell membrane, which causes lysis d. Giving up an electron, which causes injury to the chemical bonds of the cell membrane ANS: D A free radical is an electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron. Having one unpaired electron makes the molecule unstable; thus to stabilize, the molecule gives up an electron to another molecule or steals one. Therefore it is capable of forming injurious chemical bonds with proteins, lipids, or carbohydrates—key molecules in membranes andnucleic acids. Free radical damage is not caused by hypoxia, lysosomal enzymes, or transferring atoms. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 6.      What is a consequence of plasma membrane damage to the mitochondria? a. Enzymatic digestion halts DNA synthesis. b. Influx of calcium ions halts ATP production. c. Edema from an influx in sodium causes a reduction in ATP production. d. Potassium shifts out of the mitochondria, which destroys the infrastructure. ANS: B Calcium alterations are an important mechanism of cell injury anddeath. Cell membrane injury leads to calcium influx into the cell. An influx of calcium ions from the extracellular compartment activates multiple enzyme systems, resulting in cytoskeleton disruption, membrane damage, activation of inflammation, andeventually DNA degradation. Calcium ion accumulation in the mitochondria causes the mitochondria to swell, which is an occurrence that is associated with irreversible cellular injury. The injured mitochondria can no longer generate ATP, but they do continue to accumulate calcium ions. Mitochondrial consequences of cell membrane damage do not include enzymatic digestion, reduced ATP production due to edema, or infrastructure damage from potassium shifts. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 7.      What is a consequence of leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injury? a. Enzymatic digestion of the nucleus andnucleolus occurs, halting DNA synthesis. b. Influx of potassium ions into the mitochondria occurs, halting the ATP production. c. Edema of the Golgi body prevents the transport of proteins out of the cell. d. Shift of calcium out of the plasma membrane occurs, destroying the cytoskeleton. ANS: A Acid hydrolases from leaking lysosomes are activated in the reduced pH of the injured cell andthey digest cytoplasmic andnuclear components. Influx of potassium ions into the mitochondria, edema of Golgi bodies, andcalcium destruction of the cytoskeleton are not a consequence of leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injury. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering 8.      Lead causes damage within the cell by interfering with the action of what? a. Sodium andchloride b. Potassium c. Calcium d. ATP ANS: C Lead affects many different biologic activities at the cellular andmolecular levels, many of which may be related to its a.......... to Chapter 50. Shock, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Burns in Children...

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