TEST BANK FOR PORTH’S PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 10TH EDITION BY NORRIS
ALL CHAPTERS COVERED
Chapter 1- Concepts of Health and Disease
1. At an international nursing conference, many discussions and breakout sessions focused
on the World Health Organization (WHO) views on health. Of the following comments
made by nurses during a discussion session, which statements would be considered a
good representation of the WHO definition? Select all that apply.
A) Interests in keeping the elderly population engaged in such activities as book
reviews and word games during social time
B) Increase in the number of chair aerobics classes provided in the skilled care
C) Interventions geared toward keeping the elderly population diagnosed with
diabetes mellitus under tight blood glucose control by providing in-home cooking
D) Providing transportation for renal dialysis patients to and from their hemodialysis
E) Providing handwashing teaching sessions to a group of young children
2. A community health nurse is teaching a group of recent graduates about the large
variety of factors that influence an individual's health or lack thereof. The nurse is
referring to the Healthy People 2020report from the U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services as a teaching example. Of the following aspects discussed, which
would be considered a determinant of health that is outside the focus of this report?
A) The client has a diverse background by being of Asian and Native American
descent and practices various alternative therapies to minimize effects of stress.
B) The client has a family history of cardiovascular disease related to
hypercholesterolemia and remains noncompliant with the treatment regime.
C) The client has a good career with exceptional preventative health care benefits.
D) The client lives in an affluent, clean, suburban community with access to many
health care facilities.
3. A physician is providing care for a number of patients on a medical unit of a large,
university hospital. The physician is discussing with a colleague the differentiation
between diseases that are caused by abnormal molecules and diseases that cause disease.
Which of the following patients most clearly demonstrates the consequences of
molecules that cause disease?
A) A 31-year-old woman with sickle cell anemia who is receiving a transfusion of
packed red blood cells
B) A 91-year-old woman who has experienced an ischemic stroke resulting from
C) A 19-year-old man with exacerbation of his cystic fibrosis requiring oxygen
therapy and chest physiotherapy
D) A 30-year-old homeless man who has Pneumocystis cariniipneumonia (PCP) and
is HIV positive.
4. A member of the health care team is researching the etiology and pathogenesis of a
number of clients who are under his care in a hospital context. Which of the following
aspects of clients' situations best characterizes pathogenesis rather than etiology?
A) A client who has been exposed to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium
B) A client who has increasing serum ammonia levels due to liver cirrhosis
C) A client who was admitted with the effects of methyl alcohol poisoning
D) A client with multiple skeletal injuries secondary to a motor vehicle accident
5. A new myocardial infarction patient requiring angioplasty and stent placement has
arrived to his first cardiac rehabilitation appointment. In this first session, a review of
the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease is addressed. Which statement by the patient
verifies to the nurse that he has understood the nurse's teachings about coronary artery
A) “All I have to do is stop smoking, and then I won't have any more heart attacks.”
B) “My artery was clogged by fat, so I will need to stop eating fatty foods like French
fries every day.”
C) “Sounds like this began because of inflammation inside my artery that made it easy
to form fatty streaks, which lead to my clogged artery.”
D) “If I do not exercise regularly to get my heart rate up, blood pools in the veins
causing a clot that stops blood flow to the muscle, and I will have a heart attack.”
6. A 77-year-old man is a hospital inpatient admitted for exacerbation of his chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and a respiratory therapist (RT) is assessing the
client for the first time. Which of the following aspects of the patient's current state of
health would be best characterized as a symptom rather than a sign?
A) The patient's oxygen saturation is 83% by pulse oxymetry.
B) The patient notes that he has increased work of breathing when lying supine.
C) The RT hears diminished breath sounds to the patient's lower lung fields
D) The patient's respiratory rate is 31 breaths/minute.
7. Which of the following situations would be classified as a complication of a disease or
outcome from the treatment regimen? Select all that apply.
A) Massive pulmonary emboli following diagnosis of new-onset atrial fibrillation
B) Burning, intense incision pain following surgery to remove a portion of colon due
to intestinal aganglionosis
C) Development of pulmonary fibrosis following treatment with bleomycin, an
antibiotic chemotherapy agent used in treatment of lymphoma
D) Gradual deterioration in ability to walk unassisted for a patient diagnosed with
E) Loss of short-term memory in a patient diagnosed with Alzheimer disease
8. Laboratory testing is ordered for a male patient during a clinic visit for a routine followup assessment of hypertension. When interpreting lab values, the nurse knows that
A) a normal value represents the test results that fall within the bell curve.
B) if the lab result is above the 50% distribution, the result is considered elevated.
C) all lab values are adjusted for gender and weight.
D) if the result of a very sensitive test is negative, that does not mean the person is
9. The laboratory technologists are discussing a new blood test that helps establish a
differential diagnosis between shortness of breath with a cardiac etiology and shortness
of breath with a respiratory/pulmonary etiology. A positive result is purported to
indicate a cardiac etiology. The marketers of the test report that 99.8% of patients who
have confirmed cardiac etiologies test positive in the test. However, 1.3% of patients
who do not have cardiac etiologies for their shortness of breath also test positive. Which
of the following statements best characterizes this blood test?
A) Low validity; high reliability
B) High sensitivity; low specificity
C) High specificity; low reliability
D) High sensitivity; low reliability
10. As part of a screening program for prostate cancer, men at a senior citizens' center are
having their blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measured. Which of the
following statements would best characterize a high positive predictive value but a low
negative predictive value for this screening test?
A) All of the men who had high PSA levels developed prostate cancer; several men
who had low PSA levels also developed prostate cancer.
B) All of the men who had low PSA levels were cancer-free; several men who had
high levels also remained free of prostate cancer.
C) Men who had low PSA levels also displayed false-positive results for prostate
cancer; men with high levels were often falsely diagnosed with prostate cancer.
D) The test displayed low sensitivity but high specificity.
11. A male international business traveler has returned from a trip to Indonesia. While there,
he hired a prostitute for companionship and engaged in unprotected sex on more than
one occasion. Unbeknownst to him, this prostitute harbored the hepatitis C virus. Upon
return to the United States, he exhibited no symptoms and returned to his usual
activities. During this period of no outward symptoms, the man would be classified as
A) the preclinical stage of disease.
B) remission and unlikely to develop hepatitis C.
C) the clinical disease stage of hepatitis C.
D) the chronic phase of hepatitis C.
12. As of November 1, 2012, there were a total of 10 confirmed cases of Hantavirus
infection in people who were recent visitors (mid-June to end of August, 2012) to
Yosemite National Park. Three visitors with confirmed cases died. Health officials
believe that 9 out of the 10 people with Hantavirus were exposed while staying in Curry
Village in the Signature Tent Cabins. This is an example of
A) what the anticipated mortality rate would be if a family of five were planning to
vacation in Yosemite National Park.
B) the prevalence of Hantavirus one can anticipate if he or she is going to vacation in
Yosemite National Park.
C) the low rate of morbidity one can expect while traveling to Yosemite National
D) the incidence of people who are at risk for developing Hantavirus while staying in
Yosemite National Park.
13. A particular disease has a debilitating effect on the ability of sufferers to perform their
activities of daily living and is a significant cause of decreased quality of life. However,
few people die as a result of the disease's direct effects. There are hundreds of thousands
of Americans living with the disease but relatively few new cases in recent years. Which
of the following statements best conveys an accurate epidemiological characterization of
A) Low mortality; high morbidity; low prevalence; high incidence
B) Low mortality; high morbidity; high incidence; low prevalence
C) High mortality; low morbidity; high incidence; low prevalence
D) High morbidity; low mortality; high prevalence, low inc